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Muay Thai 




The Art of Fighting 

Yod Ruerngsa, Khun Kao Charuad 
and James Cartmell 



Muay Thai The Art of Fighting 

by Yod Ruerngsa, Khun Kao Charuad and James Cartmell 

This DRAFT should not be sold, rented and etc. 
All reprinting and citation of text in part or whole is prohibited. 



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Table of Contents 

Preface 6 

Chapter 1, History and Traditions of Muay Thai 

Muay Thai Chronology 7 

Thai Musical Instruments for Boxing 15 

Beginner Initiation Ritual 18 

Pre-fight Ritual 20 

Wai Kru 23 

Muay Thai Terminology 37 

Chapter 1. Cherng Muay (Traditional Basics) 

Cherng Mad 15 Cherng (15 punches) 44 

Cherng Sok 24 Cherng (24 elbow strikes) 58 

Cherng Khao 11 Cherng (11 knee strikes) 79 

Cherng Thao 15 Cherng (15 kicks) 89 

Chapter 2. Kon Muay Thai (Traditional Techniques) 

Kae Mad 29 Kon 115 

Kae Thao 23 Kon 133 

Kae Khao 3 Kon 145 

Kae Sok 4 Kon 147 

JuJom 23 Kon 149 



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Chapter 3. The Master Tricks and The Complimentary Tricks 

15 Mae Mai 164 

Control of Breath 174 

Stance and Footwork in Detail 177 

Defensive Head Movements 180 

Kicking When It Is Too Close To Kick 181 

Going "Dirty" 183 

Muay Thai: Throws and Takedowns 185 

Clinch (Prumb) 187 

Chapter 3. Movements of Using Muay Thai Art 

15 Look Mai 201 

Basic Combinations 212 

More Combinations 215 

Chapter 4. Training Drills, Conditioning and etc. 

Training Drills 216 

Improving Punching Power 218 

Favorite Drills 221 

Medicine Ball Drills 222 

Neck Wrestling Drills 224 

Thai Pad Drills 225 

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Build Explosiveness 228 

Kicking Speed 238 

Training to Fight! 240 

How not to Flinch, Blink or Turn Away 243 

Beginner Muay Thai Training Schedule 246 

Conditioning the Shins 247 

Common Muay Thai Injuries 250 

Dealing with Psychological Problem of "Getting Hit" 252 

Basic Technique in Meditation Practice 255 

Chapter 5. Hand Wrapping 

Muay Thai Hand Wrapping 256 

Pro-Boxing Hand Wrapping 260 

Hand Wrapping for Heavy Bag Training 272 



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Preface 



Words from Authors. 

First and Foremost. Techniques described in this book are meant to 
damage and even kill your opponent, though being properly executed 
are very damaging and some are potentially lethal. Practice and use them 
with caution - it's your and own responsibility. 

Second. There are lots of gyms, schools and training camps where 
Muay Thai is taught. Cause Muay Thai is living art there are myriads of 
variations of how to call this or that technique, how to execute this or 
that strike or training drill. So if you find out that there are some 
differences between what you are taught and what you read in this book 
- don't worry. Use your common sense, try both ways, chose what suits 
you more. This book isn't meant to show the only way, it is meant to 
help to choose YOUR OWN WAY. 

Third. There are three authors of this book, but in order to make 
reading easier, all advices are given as from one author. 

Fourth. Many of you can ask why so few pictures and where are all 
these fancy diagrams and stepping patterns? This book lacks them on 
purpose. We found out that lots off beginners try to imitate what they 
see (in the gym or in the book) without understanding. And it becomes 
even worse if someone decides that he can do it after only reading about 
it. We want you, our reader, to benefit from this book. As so - try all 
you read in it at your gym, with your partner, ask your trainer about it, 
discuss it with your friends. In other words - try to fill, try to catch the 
essence of techniques and drills. Understanding technique is simple, 
correct execution is much more difficult - but that's the goal. And 
remember PRACTICE IS THE ONLY WAY. 



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History and Traditions of Muay Thai 



Muay Thai Chronology 




MuayThai in the Sukhothai Era 

Thailand's capital was situated at Sukhothai from around the Buddhist years 
1781-1951 (1238-1408 CE). Inscriptions in stone columns at Sukhothai indicate 
that Sukhothai fought with its neighbors quite often. Consequently, the city had to 
instill in her soldiers knowledge and skills concerning the use of weapons such as 
swords and spears, and also how to use the body as a weapon in situations of close 
person-to-person combat. Skills such as kicking, kneeing, punching, and elbowing 
were thus developed. 

During peacetime, young men in Sukhothai practiced MuayThai to build 
character and their self-defense skills. These skills would serve them well during 
their time in the military and thus the practice of MuayThai became a good 
custom. MuayThai training centers arose around the city, for example, the 
Samakorn Training Center in Lopburi. Some were in temple areas where monks 
doubled as instructors. 

During this period, MuayThai was considered a higher art and was a part of 
the royal curriculum. It was intended to develop good and brave warriors with 
great physical fitness into great and brave rulers. The first King of Sukhothai, 
Phokhun Sri In Tharatit, believed in the benefits of MuayThai so much that he sent 
his two sons to train MuayThai at the Samakorn Training Center to prepare them 
to take the throne. In B.E. 1818-1860 (1275-1317 CE) Phokhun Ram Khamhaeng 



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wrote a war text that included the teachings of MuayThai as well as instruction in 
other fighting skills. 

MuayThai in the Krungsri Ayutthaya Era 



The Ayutthaya Era lasted from B.E. 1988-2310 (1445-1767 CE). This period 
was characterized by frequent wars between Thailand, Burma, and Cambodia. 
Therefore, young men had to prepare themselves by developing self-defense 
skills. These skills were taught by experienced masters. The training spread from 
the Royal Palace out to the public. The Phudaisawan Sword Training Center was 
very famous in that era, and it had many pupils. They were trained with wicker 
swords in the arts of sword and pole fighting. They were also trained to fight 
barehanded and thus learned MuayThai skills. In addition to fighting, such 
training centers also gave education in everyday matters. 

KingNaresuan The Great Era (B.E. 2133-2147, 1590-1604 CE) 

King Naresuan would call for young men of his age to train with him. They 
were trained to be brave, self-confident warriors. They had to be skilful with all 
weapons and in boxing. King Naresuan set up the Scouting Corps to fight in 
guerrilla warfare. It was this Corps of soldiers that were able to free Thailand from 
Burma during this time. 

KingNarai The Great Era (B.E. 2147-2233, 1604-1690 CE) 

During this period Thailand was very much at peace and there were many 
developments in the Kingdom. King Narai supported and promoted sports, 
especially MuayThai, which became a professional sport. At this time there were 
many boxing training centers. The boxing ring was set up in regular playgrounds 
where a rope would be laid out in a square shape to indicate the fighting area. 
Boxers wrapped their hands with threads that were dipped in thick starch or tar. 
This technique was called Kad-Chuck (wrapped with threads) or Muay Kad-Chuck 
(boxing with thread-wrapped hands). Boxers wore a head band, called the 
mongkon, and an amulet, or pa-pra-jiat, wrapped around their upper arms when 
they fought. Boxers did not fight according to weight, height, or age. The rules 
were simple: Fights lasted until there was a clear winner. Gambling accompanied 
the bouts. Villages would often challenge each other to boxing matches and 
boxing became an activity central to folk plays and festivals. 

King Prachao Sua Era (B.E. 2240-2252, 1697-1 709 CE) 

King Prachao Sua, also known as the Tiger King as well as Khun Luang 
Sorasak, loved MuayThai very much. Once he went, dressed in plain clothes, to a 
district called Tambol Talad-guad with four royal guards. There he entered a 
boxing competition. The promoter did not recognize the King, but knew that the 
boxer came from Ayutthaya. He let the King fight against very good fighters from 



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the town of Wisetchaichan. They were Nai Klan Madtai (killing fists), Nai Yai 
Madlek (iron fists), and Nai Lek Madnak (hard fists or punches). The Tiger King 
won all three fights. King Prachao Sua also trained his two sons, Prince Petch and 
Prince Porn, in MuayThai, sword fighting, and wrestling. 

During the early part of the Ayutthaya period the Department of Royal Boxing 
was founded. One of its responsibilities was to recruit young talented boxers to 
fight for the King's entertainment. The top boxers were chosen for the Royal 
Quarries, called Thani Lir (chosen guards). They were responsible for the security 
of the royal palace and the King at all times. These boxers were to become the 
boxing masters who trained the soldiers and the Princes. 

In the later part of the Ayutthaya Period, after the second loss to Burma in B.E. 
2310 (1767 CE), there was one boxer of note. 

Nai Khanomtom 

Nai Khanomtom was a prisoner of war captured by the Burmese when 
Ayutthaya was sacked for the second time in B.E. 2310 (1767 CE). In B.E. 2317 
(1774 CE), the Burmese King, King Angwa, wanted to hold a celebration for the 
Great Pagoda in Rangoon. Boxing was included in the celebrations. Good Thai 
boxers were called on to fight with Burmese boxers. On the 17 th of March of that 
year, Nai Khanomtom fought and defeated 10 Burmese boxers in succession with 
no rest period between fights. It was the first time that MuayThai was used in 
competition outside of Thailand. For his achievements, Nai Khanomtom was 
honored as the Father or MuayThai or the Inventor of MuayThai, and the 17 of 
March is now named MuayThai Day. 

MuayThai in the Thonburi Period 



The Thonburi period extended from B.E. 2310-2324 (1767-1781 CE). It was a 
period of reconstruction after the restoration of peace in the Kingdom. MuayThai 
training was primarily for man-to-man conflict during wars and or military 
service. 

The arrangement of competitive boxing bouts during that period involved the 
matching of different training camps, usually from remote areas of the country. 
There is no evidence of rules or regulations, and it is thought that boxers fought 
without any official points system. So, they would fight until one dropped or gave 
up, leaving the man standing as the obvious winner. 

Bouts took place on open grounds, mostly in temple areas. Boxers wrapped 
their hands and wrists in thread, wore a head band or mongkon, and an amulet or 
pa-pra-jiat usually around their right arm. 



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MuayThai in Ratanakosin Period 



The first era of this period encompasses the rule of King Rama I to King Rama 
IV (B.E. 2325-2411, 1782-1868 CE). At this time, MuayThai was considered the 
national fighting art. It was an essential part of every festival. 

Eventually, it was decided that rules and regulations were necessary, 
especially regarding the length of rounds. An intriguing method of timekeeping 
was then developed. A coconut shell would have a hole punched in it and be 
floated in a water tank. When the coconut shell sank, a drum signaled the end of 
the round. There was no limit to the number of rounds, so the boxers fought until 
there was a clear winner or until one of them gave up. 

King Rama I Period 

Pra Puttha Yord Fa Chula Loke, The Great (B.E. 2325-2352, 1782-1809 CE) 

King Rama I, himself, trained as a boxer from a very early age. He expressed 
keen interest in, and often watched, boxing matches. In B.E. 2331 (1788 CE), two 
foreigners, brothers who traveled around the world trading goods, arrived in 
Bangkok. The younger of the two proved to be quite a good boxer and won prizes 
from matches around the world quite often. He told Pra Ya Pra Klang that he 
wanted to fight for prizes against Thai boxers. This request was relayed to King 
Rama I and, after consulting with Pra Raja Wangboworn, the Director of the 
Boxing Department, a bet of 50 changs (4,000 Baht) was agreed upon. Pra Raja 
Wangboworn selected a good boxer named Muen Han to fight the foreigner in a 
ring set up behind the Temple of the Emerald Buddha at the Grand Palace. It was 
20 by 20 meters square and there was a reception area set up nearby. The fight 
was not to be scored, but to continue until a decisive winner emerged. Before the 
fight, Muen Han was oiled with herbal ointment, and he wore amulets on his upper 
arms. He was then carried to the ring on the shoulders of a friend. 

When the fight began, it was clear that the foreigner was much heavier, taller, 
and stronger than Muen Han. When the foreigner got in close he employed 
wresting tactics to try to break the Thai boxer's neck and collarbone. To counter 
these tactics, Muen Han tried kicking and using stepping kicks. He tried to control 
the fight and his footwork was very quick. Eventually, the foreigner began to tire 
and it seemed he was going to lose. His brother, realizing this, jumped into the 
ring to help his younger brother. This caused a riot to break out among the 
spectators. Many foreigners were injured. The two brothers, after recovering from 
their injuries, left Thailand. 



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King Rama II Period 

King Pra Buddha Lert La Napa-Lai (B.E. 2352-2367, 1809-1824 CE) 

While young, this King trained as a boxer at Bang Wa Yai Training Center 
(Wat Rakangkositaram) with the boxing master, and army general, Somdet 
Prawanarat (Tong You). At age 16, he learned more about MuayThai from the 
Boxing Department. He changed the sport's name from its previous name, Ram 
Mad Ram Muay, to MuayThai. 

King Rama III Period 

King Pra Nangklao (B.E. 2367-2394, 1824-1851 CE) 

King Rama III learned MuayThai from the Boxing Department. During his 
reign, Thai boys loved to fight, and they learned MuayThai and the sword of Khun 
Ying Moe. Khun Ying Moe is renowned for leading many brave women to defeat 
the invading soldiers of Prince Anuwong from Vientienne, Laos, who were 
attacking the city of Korat. 

King Rama IV Period 

King Chomklao (B.E. 2394-2411, 1851-1868 CE) 

When young, King Rama IV loved to dress himself up as a boxer. He also 
loved sword and pole fighting. Often, he would box and compete in sword and 
pole fighting during festivals in the grounds of the Temple of the Emerald 
Buddha. During this time, Thailand saw the growth of western sports and culture. 
However, MuayThai remained a popular activity and a strong symbol of Thai 
culture. 

King Rama V Period 

King Chulachomklao (B.E. 2411-2453, 1868-1910 CE) 

King Rama V learned MuayThai from the Boxing Department with boxing 
master Luang Pola Yotanuyoke. The King loved MuayThai and loved watching 
boxing matches. From time to time he would order Royal officers to arrange for 
good boxers to fight for him. Such tournaments were used to recruit men for His 
Majesty the King's Royal Guards. 

King Rama V recognized the value of MuayThai. In order to promote interest 
in Thai sports, the King encouraged MuayThai tournaments. He also encouraged 
the promotion of Muay Luang, or royal boxing centers to train youngsters. These 
Muay Luang also organized and controlled MuayThai tournaments. The royal 
office would also send official invitations to the heads of Muay Luang inviting 



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their boxers to participate in particular events and festivals. Winners at such 
events were promoted by His Majesty the King to a position callen 'Muen', or 
first-rank officer. 

In B.E. 2430 (1887 CE), King Rama V established the Department of 
Education. MuayThai was a subject in the curriculum of the physical education 
teacher's training school and at Prachufachomktao Royal Military Cadet School. 
This period is considered the golden age of MuayThai. 

King Rama VI Period 

King Mongkhut Klao Chao Yu Hua (B.E. 2453-2468, 1910-1925 CE) 

During this period, Thailand went to World War I. The Thai army was 
stationed in France with General Praya Dhepasadin as Commander. He loved 
MuayThai and he organized a bout to entertain the European servicemen and 
laymen. They enjoyed the bout very much and thus was born European interest in 
MuayThai. 

In B.E. 2464 (1921 AD), after the war, the first permanent boxing stadium was 
built on the football ground at Suan Khulab School. It was named the Suan 
Khulab Boxing Stadium. At first, spectators would sit or stand around the ring. 

The ring itself was a square, 26 meters by 26 meters. Boxers wrapped their 
hands with cotton threads, wore a head band or mongkon, and an amulet or pa-pra- 
jiat around their upper arms. They wore shorts with a protective cup and their 
waists were belted by a long piece of cloth. They wore neither a shirt nor shoes. 
The referee would wear an old style Thai dress uniform with a royal white shirt 
and white socks. 

One great fight from this period was between Muen Mad Man, aged 50, and 
Nai Pong Prabsabod, a tall man aged 22 who came from Korat. The younger man 
fought to avenge the death of his father who was killed in a bout with Muen Mad 
Man that took place at the funeral of Khun Marupongsiripat. Two minutes into the 
grudge match, Muen Mad Man was knocked out by Nai Pong. The spectators 
became very excited and went mad trying to congratulate Nai Pong. It took some 
time for the situation to calm down. 

This kind of scene was clearly a problem and a committee was set up to solve 
it. Finally, it was decided that the ring should be raised to a height of four feet 
above the ground, be covered with grass mats tied together, and surrounded by a 1 
inch think rope. There was to be a space for each boxer to enter the ring near its 
corner. The referee began wearing a full scouting uniform and there was now a 
time keeper with two watches. A drum was used as the round signal and a match 
was established at 1 1 rounds of three minutes each. Boxers were to break when 
the referee so ordered, and it was now forbidden to bite one's opponent or to attack 



12 



him while he is falling. Boxers had to go to a neutral corner when their opponent 
fell down. Music for the fights was played by the orchestra of Muen Samak 
Siangprachit. 

King Rama VII Period 

King Pok Klaochao Yu Hua (B.E. 2468-2477, 1925-1934 CE) 

General Dhepasadin built a boxing stadium called Lak Muang at Tachang 
(near the present day National Theatre). The ring rope was thicker and tighter and 
without a space to protect the boxers. Bouts were organized regularly. 

In B.E. 2472 (1929 CE) governmental orders required all boxers to wear 
boxing gloves. Boxing gloves were introduced to Thailand by a Philippine boxer 
who came to Thailand for an international boxing match. Prior to the introduction 
of boxing gloves there was a tragic and fatal accident when Nai Pae Liangprasert 
from Ta Sao, Uttaradit province, killed Nai Jia Kakamen in a boxing match which 
was fought in the Kad-Chuck style where boxers' hands were wrapped in cotton 
strips. 

In November B.E. 2472 (1929 CE) Chao Khun Katatorabodee first organized 
a boxing bout along with other festivities at a fun park in Lumpini Park. He chose 
only good boxers to fight every Saturday. An educated and worldly man, he built 
an international standard boxing ring with three ropes and a canvas floor. There 
were red and blue corners, two judges, and a referee in the ring. It was here that a 
bell was first used as the round signal. 

To celebrate on New Year's Eve of that year, a match was scheduled between 
Samarn Dilokwilas and Det Poopinyae, accompanied by a special bout between 
Nai Air Muangdee and Nai Suwan Niwasawat. Nai Air Muangdee was the first 
boxer to use a metal protective cup. It has since been in general use. 

King Rama VIII Period 

King Ananddhamahidol (B.E. 2477-2489, 1934-1946 CE) 

Between B.E. 2478-2484 (1935-1941 CE), a rich and well-known man built a 
boxing stadium on Chao Chate's ground. It was called Suan Chao Chate Boxing 
Stadium. At present it is the Department of Reserved Officers Training Corps. 

The stadium was run by military personnel and it did very good business. 
Some of the income was donated to support military activities. After several years, 
the Second World War broke out. At that time the boxing stadium was closed. 
Japanese troops arrived in Thailand on December 8 B.E. 2484 (1941 CE). 



13 



From B.E. 2485-2487 (1942-1944 CE), while the war was still going on, 
boxing bouts were organized in movie theaters during the daytime. There were 
boxing stadiums at Patanakarn, Ta Prachan, and Wongwian Yai where the public 
could be entertained. 

On the 23 rd of December, B.E. 2488 (1945 CE), Ratchadamnern boxing 
Stadium was opened officially. Mr. Pramote Puengsoonthorn was its chairman and 
Praya Chindharak was its administrator. The promoter was Mr. Chit Ampolsin 
(Kru Chit). Bouts were organized every Sunday from 4 to 7 p.m. The rules were 
those of the Department of Physical Education. Bouts were five three-minute 
rounds in length, with two minutes rest between rounds. The boxers were weighed 
by stone. Two years later, weight was measured in kilograms, and in B.E. 2491 
(1948 CE) pounds were adopted as the measure of a boxer's weight so as to be in 
accord with international standards. Divisions were assigned by weight, for 
example, not over 112 pounds. International names were given for each weight 
group, such as flyweight, and bantamweight. Matches were arranged to select a 
champion for each class, following the international style. Many additions have 
been made to the regulations of Muay Thai. It is forbidden now to hit the private 
parts since this technique has become quite infamous as a form of attack and is 
considered debasing for the fine art of Thai boxing. 

Muay Thai remains a national art form. If all parties concerned help to 
uplift and conserve this form of martial arts, and pass it onto following generations, 
it will remain a valuable possession of the Thai nation. 



14 



Muay Thai Traditions and Rituals 



Thai Musical Instruments for Boxing 

Muay Thai is still developing, but what remains unchanged is the use of the pipe 
and the drums as musical accompaniments for the matches, and is considered a 
unique characteristic of Muay Thai. 

For dancing one may use a record player, but for thai boxing it is imperative to 
have live music. For the prefight rituals and during the fight itself the tempo of 
music is increased to encourage the fighters to put forth their best efforts. There are 
three Thai musical instruments for boxing. 




Traditional Thai instruments used during and before the fights are the Pi, the Ching 
and the Glawng Khaek. 

The Pi 




The Pi Chawa or Java Pipe, it is believed, owes its origin to India where the 
Javanese secured their model. It appears that the instrument was used in both 



15 



Royal and Army processions and in accompanying the traditional Thai fencing 
bouts. The stirring sound which it makes is somewhat like the Chanta on Scotch 
Bag Pipes. 
The Pi Chawa is made in two sections; a cylindrical body 10 3/4 " in length and a 
bell or horn in 5 1/2 "long.lt is made of hardwood or ivory or both. Along the body 
are seven finger holes. Four pieces of reed in double pairs are tied to a small metal 
tube. The end of the tube is inserted into the body of the instrument and wrapped 
with thread to make the connection sung. At rhis end of the tube there is also a 
small round convex piece of metal or coconut shell to support the performer's lips. 




The Ching which is a percussion instrument of the cymbal type comes in pairs and 
is made of a thick metal shaped like a tea-cup or hollow cone. The Ching is played 
by hitting the two pieces together. Each one measures about 6-7 cm, 2 l/2"-2 3/4 : 
in diameter. 

At the apex of each there is a small hole through which a cord is passed. A knot at 
each end of the cord fits inside the apex of the cymbal and prevents the cord from 
slipping through. The cord fastens the two cymbals together and holds them in 
playing positions. The function of the Ching is to keep time and to beat out the 
rhythm. 

The name Ching is onomatopoetic, coming from the sound made when the two 
edges of the cymbal are struck together and the sound is allowed to persist. It is a 
melodious and chiming sound. When the two cymbals are struck together and then 
held together, it is produces a dull clapping sound. 



16 



The Glawng Khaek 




The Glawng Khaek has a long cylindrical body which is made of hardwood and is 
58 cm. (23 ") in length. The heads are of unequal size, the larger being 20 cm. (8") 
in diameter called Na rui (literally "loose") and the smaller 18 cm. (7") in diameter 
called Na tan ("outer head"). The two heads are made of calfskin or goatskin. 
Originally the two heads were tied down with cane or rattan which was split in half 
and tied apart, but now owing to the difficulty obtaining good rattan and cane, 
leather tongs are usually used. The drums are used in pairs and are of different 
pitches. The higher toned drum is referred to as tua pu (male) and the lower toned 
drum as tua mia (female). 

They are played with the palms and the fingers of the hands and both drumheads 
are used. There is one player for each drum. A complex rhythmic line is created by 
the inter-mingling and alternating of the sounds of the two drums. 



17 



Beginner Initiation Ritual 



Thai boxers are prone to believe in magic spells, and the occult in the believe that 
such ploys could stop the opponent who would be too puzzled to fight. Fighters are 
known to have gone as far as to recite spells in graveyards particularly those 
reputed to be haunted, so as to facilitate meditation, strength, courage and increase 
readiness to face a man. 

In general, students of Thai boxing are usually initiated into a camp via an 
initiation ceremony. The chosen day is usually Thursday, (Thursday is considered 
the day of the god of arts and skills). The student would bring flowers, incense 
sticks, candles, towels and a water container to the teachers house. He would also 
bring with him 6 twenty-five Satang coins and 6 pieces of white cotton cloth. 
Depending on the amount of students who are to be initiated, a small feast is 
prepared, with pork, duck, and chicken with other foods and fruits. 

The teacher would pick up either a glove or the sacred cotton laurel and raise it 
above his head, then the students to be initiated would bow to the teacher three 
times and put out his arm to be held by the teacher while holding the glove or 
laurel. Both the teacher and the student should be holding the article while the 
teacher begins to incite the blessing of knowledge; 

"Buddhang Prasit Dhammang Prasit Sangkang Prasit, Narayana is Chao 
Prasit Pawantute ?f (Meaning the one who confers knowledge). 

When the teacher releases the hands of the student, then holds the article above 
his head to pay respect to Rama, where he bows three times, he then faces the 
teacher and bows three more times towards him. The teacher then makes the 
following blessing; 

"Siddhi Kijang, Siddhi Kammang, Siddhi Techo, Chaiyo Nijang, Chaiya 
Siddhi Pawantute" 

If there is pork or duck etc., then the teacher will take a knife and slice a piece 
offering this to the student, while reciting "This object is given by Narayana to all 
his pupils so that they could be powerful and enjoy lasting happiness ". The student 
makes another sign of respect and eats the piece of meat. There is always a large 
container of holy water and a statute of Buddha, which is placed in the middle to 
bear witness to the ceremony. Holy water is sprinkled on the student and the 
teacher would offer the student the wearing of the holy cotton laurel, which is 
governed with the following spell; 

Om Sri Siddhi Deja Chana Satru Na, Ma, Pa, Ta You see me. Your mind should 
be gloomy, worried, without sense Namo Buddhaya makes you captivated, 
believing that I am Ong Promma Chaiya Siddhi Pawantume n . 



18 



One of the spells used by King Naresuan during his march against the Burmese, 
is often used in this ceremony; "Pra Chao 5 Pra Ong ff (Five Gods) Namo 
Buddhaya; 

Na Yan Bot Songkram ( Na the region of the war), Ma Tid tarn Satru (Ma 
follow the enemy) Bud Tor Su Pai Rin, (Bud fight the foes) Cha Sin Pol Krai 
(Dha conquer all forces) Ya Chok Chai Chana (Ya glorious victory). 

When fighting at close quarters King Naresuan used the following spell in 
engaging the enemy in battle. 

Na Dej Rukran (Na, might invades), Ma Tao Harn Fan Fad (Ma, courage in 
striking), Pa Pikat Home Huek (Pa, destroy without fear), Ta Prab Suek Toi 
Tod (Ta, repel the enemy). " 



19 



Pre-fight Ritual 

When fighters enter the ring, they traditionally are seen wearing a Mongkon on 
their heads, and Pong Malai around their necks. 




Mongkon 



The Mongkon (or Mangala) is the traditional head band which is always worn by 
Muay Thai fighters . It is usually made from a special cotton yarn, which has been 
carefully bound together in a special way. This item is used to represent the gym 
that you are fighting out of. It is essentially a crown. Fighters never own the 
Mongkon themselves, it is gym property. Also, fighters are not to touch the 
Mongkon. It is placed on their heads and removed by their Kru or trainer. It serves 
to remind the fighter that he is in the ring representing his gym or camp, not 
himself. In the past, each gym had a distinct Mongkon, and one could identify what 
gym a fighter was from by the Mongkon worn. 

Pong Malai are the floral wreaths worn around a fighter's neck when he enters the 
ring. Pong Malai literally translates to "Group of Flowers". It is almost identical in 
purpose to a Hawaiian Lei. Pong Malai are given to a fighter by friends and fans as 
a good luck gesture. Pong Malai are also commonplace in Thai culture outside of 
the boxing ring. Again, much like a Hawaiian Lei. 

When the fighter steps into the ring, they always go over the top rope. They 
NEVER duck under or between the ropes to enter or exit the ring. This is a 
symbolic gesture that is closely related to Thai culture. In Thai culture, a person's 
head is considered to be the most important part of the body, practically a holy 
object. The feet, by contrast, are considered lowly and dirty. A fighter should 
ALWAYS enter the ring over the top rope so as not to allow his head to go beneath 
anything. 

When the fighter is in the ring, he goes to the center to bow to each of the four 
sides of the ring, paying his respects to the audience who has paid to see him fight. 

The fighter then returns to his corner and if he is wearing a robe, his trainer 
removes it for him to begin the real pre-fight ceremony. 



20 



Beginning in his own corner, the fighter places his right hand atop the uppermost 
ring rope and walks counter-clockwise around the ring, symbolically "Sealing the 
Ring". The act of sealing the ring represents a statement to your opponent: "It's just 
you and me now." This act represents you sealing out the crowd, your trainers, the 
judges, and everyone from this match. It's just you and me buddy! Mano a mano. 

Upon completion of sealing the ring, the fighter then positions himself in the center 
of the ring and kneels facing the direction of his home town, or his gym/camp. He 
performs three bows, touching his forehead to the floor. This is called the Wai Kru 
(bow to the teacher Wai means bow, Kru means teacher.). These three bows can 
take on a different significance with each fighter, but in our gym, we think of them 
as paying respect to your teacher and gym, your family, and finally to your deity. 

The fighter then begins an elaborate dance-like ritual called the Ram Muay. The 
fighter goes through many complex motions, which often imitate animals or 
professions. In the SuriyaSak Ram Muay, we go through motions imitating a 
swallow, a hunter, a soldier, and an executioner. 

The Ram Muay originated back in the days before there were rings. Initially, these 
motions were just the fighter warming up, stretching, and testing the ground of the 
predetermined fighting area. Over time, these transformed into the elaborate rituals 
that they are today. 

The Ram Muay still serves a practical purpose in fight preparation besides the 
cultural "ritual". The motions are designed so that they stretch out the major 
muscle groups of the body. The Ram Muay is also used as a fighters "personal 
time", allowing him a minute or two right before the match to collect his thoughts 
and focus on the match. 

Once the Ram Muay is completed, the fighter/s bow towards their opponent's 
corner to pay respect to their opponent and his gym, and they return to their own 
corners for final blessings by their coach/Kru/trainer. The Kru then removes the 
Mongkon from the fighter's head and the Pong Malai from around his neck and 
hangs them on the ring post. 



Fighters also commonly wear a cord around their bicep called the Kruang Ruang 
(armband) or Paprachiat (Good Luck Charm). These are usually given to the 




Paprachiat 



21 



fighter as good luck charms by close family or by monks as talismans to ward off 
harm. These armbands are worn throughout the entire fight. 

The practice of wearing Mongkons and Kruang Ruang/Paprachiats is believed to 
have originated during Thai medieval ages when the Thai's often found themselves 
at war. Soldiers commonly wore headbands and armbands made from material that 
had special meaning to them, such as the hem of a parents Pakima (a skirt-like 
outfit worn by both men and women) or even strands of a loved ones hair wrapped 
in cloth. Sometimes little religious artifacts were wrapped up and worn, such as 
little Buddha figurines. 

Anyway, the above traditions and rituals are the most common practices associated 
with Thai boxing. Though all of these traditions and rituals have been influenced 
by Thai religion (Buddhism, Hinduism, and Islam), they are not religious in nature. 
These rituals and traditions transcend a Thai's religious beliefs, as they are part of 
the greater culture that is Thailand. 



22 



Wai Kru 



Wai Kru is a demonstration of the pupilrs respect and gratitude to his teacher in 
submission to the teaching training. Wai Kru is traditionally practiced by Thais of 
various professions and arts, e.g., dancers, sword fighters, musicians, as well as 
academic students, and of course Muay Thai boxers are no exception. "Wai" 
means to pay respect by putting both hands together in front of the chest. The 
demonstration of Wai Kru does not only imply paying respect to the present 
teacher, but also includes homage to all the teachers of the discipline. 

Wai Kru ceremonies are preferable held on Thursday, which is believed to be 
the teachersrs day. On that day, pupils present certain offerings, usually flowers, 
money, cloth, etc., to the person who has accepted them as his students. The pupils 
make a vow that they will study seriously and patiently, respect him and behave 
fairly to their fellow students and will use the knowledge gained properly. 

Wai Kru is called Kheun Kru (the initial ceremony of paying respect to the 
teacher). Subsequently, they will pay respect to their teachers ceremonially each 
year, which is called "Yohk Kru" But whenever the pupils intend to use the 
knowledge taught to them, they will always start by paying respect to their teacher; 
this action is called Wai Kru or Bucha Kru (to pay respect to a teacher). 

In Muay Thai, the boxer will always preface the fight with Wai Kru and this 
tradition is still practiced nowadays. This ceremony is usually performed to 
rousing Thai music from pipes and drums, and with the initial Ram Muau (the 
boxing movement). The Wai Kru and Ram Muay are useful, since the boxer gains 
encouragement from paying homage to his teachers and feels that he is not on his 
own: he has his teacher and the other teachers of the discipline to support him. The 
Wai Kru process will also give him time to concentrate and revise what he has 
learned, as well as display the nature of his weapons and the high degree of his 
skill. The steps, movement and use of his weapons are designed to warm up the 
bodyrs muscles, survey the field of play, and conceal the contestants style of 
fighting 



23 



Hong Hern 




After being in sitting manner until standing up in Dhepnimitra manner and then 
turn to the right. 

Step 1: raise the right foot and straight it backward. Standing on your left foot. 
Bend your body to the front. Start to perform the dance by sprawling your arms, 
kneel down while turning the face side of your palms down. 

Step 2: kneel up and bend up the wrist to raise up the fingers. 

Step 3: lay your right foot on the floor then straight your left foot backward, 
continue to perform the dance alike the flying bird. The movement of body, arm 
and palm must correspond with the music. 

Step 4: lay down your left foot then "Yang Sam Khum" (walk powerfully in three 
step) to change the direction. By turning you around to the "left direction" then 
step out your left foot, bend your body down to " wai " the "Pra-Bhrama-tis" (the 
direction of Bhrama ) at the left side just one time. Repeat to perform the " Hong- 
Hern" dancing styles by starting the first step to the third step again but in the 
fourth step you must turn to the backside "Wai Bhrama" and then repeat to perform 
the dance. The last time turn to the front side, (which is the original direction while 
you sit in the "Dhep Pha-nom" form) And then "Wai-Bhrama" perform the dance 
called "Hong-Hern" and "Bhrama Si Na" then you play "Yang Sam Khum" and 
bend your body down to salute your counterpart. It is the finish of the "Wai Kru" 
and the dance called " Hong-Hern " 



24 



Yoong Fon Hang 

To perform "Yoong-Fon-Hang" style, you 
must start from "Wai Kru" from the sit 
form called "Dhep Panom" to the stand 
form called "Dhep Nimitra" respectively. 

Step 1: turn your body to right side, Wai 
Pra Bhrama for one time. 

Step 2: step out your left foot forward. 
Raise up your right foot then straighten it 
backward bend down your body forward 
simultaneously. Put the hands together in 
salute at the chest level. 

Step 3: turn the face side of your palm 
upward and slowly move your arms go 
through the armpits to the backside of 
your body until your arms are straight. All 
of tip fingers are closed together. 

Step 4: move your hands out to the side of 
the body alike straighten your arms. Then 
move it round to come gathering at your 
face. Lift your chest and your face up 
while your hands were put to touch your 
head, while your right legs still stretch 
backward. 

Step 5: hold down your right foot to 
stand straightly. Raise up your left foot 
then straighten it backward. Stand on your 
right foot and then repeat the step 1-4 (it's 
just switch the right side to be the left 
side). Repeat to perform the dance for all 
4 directions. Then get back to the corner 
with "Kow Yang" and bend down your 
body to salute your counterpart. 



25 



Yoong Ram Pan 

To perform the "Yoong Ram Pan" 

style. 

Starts with "Wai Km" from "Dhep 
Panom" form and other form 
respectively until raise to stand up in the 
"Dhep Nimitra" form. 

Step 1: turn around your body to the 
front direction "Wai Pra Bhrama" one 
time. 

Step 2: step out your left foot forward. 
Raise your right foot and straighten it 
backward bend down your body to the 
frontward simultaneously. Which your 
hand clasping at the chest level. 

Step 3: turn the face side of your palm 
upward and slowly move your arms 
backward through the armpit to the 
backside of your body until your arms 
are straight, move your hands out to the 
side of the body alike straighten your 
arms and move it round to come gather 
at your face. Repeat this way three times. 

Step 4: move your right legs 
perpendicular to the floor. Raise the right 
foot up. 

Step 5: raise your left foot and straighten 
it backward, repeat the step 1-4 and then 
perform the dance the same way in every 
direction. Then go back to your corner 
with "Kow yang" manner, bend down 
your body to salute your counterpart. 



26 



Sod Soi Mala 




To perform the "Sod Soi Ma-La" style, starting with "Wai Kru" in sitting "Thep - 
Panom " until standing up in " Dhep-Nimitra". 

Step 1: turn round your body to the right direction. Perform "Wai Phra Brahma" 
one time. 

Step 2: step out your left foot forward. Raise your right leg and straighten it 
backward, lift it to the same level of your chin. Bend your left arm perpendicular to 
the floor. Stretch the tip of your fist up. 

Step 3: insert left fist up inside of the right arm and beyond it up until right elbow 
parallel to the level of your chin. 

Step 4: repeat the third step but change the right arm to be the left arm instead. 

Step 5: repeat the steps 2-4 but change to stand by your right foot instead. 

Step 6: repeat the dance for every direction. And then "Kow Yang" and bend down 
to salute the counterpart and go the your corner. 



27 



The King Rama Pheang Sorn . 

To perform the "Phra Rama Plang Sorn" style. 

Phra Rama Phlang Sorn style generally perform the 
dance just one direction. It's the direction of the 
counterpart. 

Step 1: turn round your body to the right direction. Wai 
Phra Brahma one time. 

Step 2: step your left foot frontward raise your arms 
alike you catch an arrow rod in your left hand. 

Step 3: move your right hand to the backside alike you 
pick an arrow from your neck to the rod. Then pull the 
tendon backward 2-3 times but act alike not release the 
arrow repeat this for 2 time but in the third time you 
perform alike you lift the rod up high at the level of 
your ears. Stand still look straight at your target then 
release the arrow. 

Step 4: while your release your arrow lay down your 
right foot on the floor and raise your left foot up 
frontward simultaneously. After that raise your hand at 
above the face. Act alike you are looking at the arrow 
you released. And waiting to see the result. If you are 
disappointed at the result cause from the mistargeted 
shot. You express by shaking your head right and left, if 
you are pleased with the result then you smile and nod 
your head up and down to show your appreciation. 

Step 5: you say the prayer "Sake Ka-Tha" such as "Na 
Jung Ngung" three times. And then stamp down the 
floor three times. 

Step 6: "Yang Sam Khum" to your corner then bend 
your body down to salute the counterpart. 



28 



Payak Dom Kwang 

To perform the "Payak Dom Kwang" style. 

Start with Wai Kru from the Dhep Phanom form until stand up with the Dhep 
Nimitra form. 

Step 1: turn round your body to the right direction to wai "Phra Brahma : the right 
direction" for one time. 

Step 2: from the Kow Yang, while the left foot is front, bend your body down 
frontward tighten the fist, raise your elbow to block the front side and instantly turn 
around to look at the backside which is look at the counterpart , the right arms and 
right foot are behind. Nod your head up and down to the counterpart one or two 
times 

Step 3: repeat step 2 but switch the use the right foot front instead. And then repeat 
the step 2 and 4, which turn to perform until complete all 4 directions. Then go 
back to your corner with "Kow Yang" and bend body down to salute the 
counterpart. The "Payak Dom Kwang" and " Kwang Leow Lung" perform 
similar style. 



29 



Sue Lak Hang 



The "Sua Lak Hang" style. It has own 
way both sitting version and standing 
version. Start with "Wai Kuru" from 
the "Dhep Pha-nom", "Tha-Vai Bung- 
Kom", " Pha-Thom" and " Bhrama" 
form respectively in the same way 
with others. 

Sitting version : 

Step 1: while sitting in the "Bhrama" 
form which the left foot perpendicular 
to the floor. Raise the tip of your hand 
and wave your arm up and down for 
all time. Then stretch your arm out 
wave it up and down. Shake your 
head to the counterpart. In the same 
time move up and down 
harmoniously. Your weight is focus 
on the left foot and move your right 
foot help to keep the balance. And 
move your body along the rhythm. 

Step 2: move your body backward to 
take your weight focusing on your left 
foot. Your right foot still stretch 
forward. Move both of your hands up 
and down in the same way as step 1 : 
you probably change to use your right 
foot instead. 




Standing Version 



Stand up from the sitting form of the "Sua Lak Hang" dancing style. 

Step 1: stand up, keep in balance with your right foot, bend your left foot 
backward. Raise up the tip of your foot and bend your body frontward, raise both 
of your hands perpendicular to the floor. Wave your hand up and down similar to 
the sitting version, which is move the whole arms simultaneously. Wobble Body, 
tip of foot, face alike to mock the counterpart. 




31 



SOW NOY PRA PANG 



To perform the " Sow Noy Pra Pang" style. 
The first direction (front direction) 

The boxer start at sitting in the "Dhep Pha-nom" form and bend down to prostrate 
Tra Ratanatrai three times. Clasp and put your hands at the chest. Say a Pali verse 
"Na Pidta MoMaiHen Bhuddha Pidta ThaPidhoo Ya" 3 times. Realize the 
gratefulness of Buddha, Dhamma and Buddhist monk, the gratefulness of mother, 
father, masters start to Tha-wai-Bung-Kom f for the first round from the clasp at the 
chest level form. 

Step 1: bend your body forward simultaneously stretch your arms forward until the 
tip of your fingers touch the floor. Use both of your thumbs to insert and combine 
preventing separation from each other, wai "Phra Mae Dharanee" 

Step 2: perform alike you use your hand to pick some " Mae Dharanee" up to the 
chest. Then be in the "Dhep Phanom" form. 

Step 3: perform "Wai" by raising your hand up to touch the face as the "Tha Wai 
Bung Kom" form. Bend your elbow, turn up your face up move your body 
backward. Keep your two thumbs touching your forehead. Stretch up your index 
finger and bend your body backward a bit. Then let your hands down at the chest 
level. 

The second "Tha Wai Bung Kom", 

Step 1: bend your body forward a bit. Let your face side of your palm outward. 
Stretch the tip of fingers out. Bend your body lower simultaneously slowly move 
round your hand out backward. Then move it back through your elbows. 

Step 2: then move your hands out of your body at each of both side. Slowly move 
your hands round to meet each other at the front side. 

Step 3: let the face of your palms downward. To pick up "Phra Mae Dharanee" by 
move round your palms frontward just one time. Then turn the face of the palms up 
and lay them on the floor. 

Step 4: move your palms scoop "Phra Mae Dharanee" into your chest to be the " 
Phanom Meo Samer Og" 

Step 5: raise up hands up to "Wai" then let your hands down to PhaNom at the 
chest level. Perform the "Tha Wai Bung Kom" for the third time by start from 
Phanom Meo at the chest level, repeat the same step with the Tha Wai Bung Kom 
at the second time. 



32 



Start to perform the boxing dance. From the sitting put the hand together in the 
chest level to be the f Pa-thom f and Brahma form' 

Step 1: raise your body up a bit from the tip of your foots. Step out the right foot 
frontward. Bend your right knee perpendicular to the floor. Sit on the left heel. 
Right hand lay on the right knee, tighten your hand lay downward. Bend left elbow 
raise the left hand put it at the chest level 

Step 2: from the 'Pa-Thom', bend your body frontward. Your weight focus on right 
foot. Kneel your left knee down. Stretch left legs straight backward. Bend your 
foot up above the floor. Hit the fist frontward, eyes look straight on. 

Step 3: hit the fist backward simultaneously step back to sit on the left heel, stretch 
the right foot ahead raise up the tip of the foot. 

Step 4: spin your left fist out of the body raise it up high above the right side of the 
head, (similar to the 'Bung A-Bai Berk Far' form). The right arms is on the same 
level as the chest. Right elbow still lay on the right legs. 

Step 5: bend your body forward and then backward. Repeat this step 2 times. 

Step 6: while bend your body frontward for the third time, but not bend body back 
yet. Raise your right heel up from the floor a bit. (as spring ) 

Step 7: focus your weight on the right knee, right arm lay on the right knee. Kneel 
left knee on the floor. Raise left foot which is behind up. Raise up the tip of the left 
foot, (bend up the tip of the foot). Raise the left hand above the head, look at high 
level, turn the head left and right then turn to look straight on. 



33 



The first round of f Chak Pang Pad Nah ? , 




Step 1: raise body up from sitting on the left heel. Bend your body forward. Raise 
your tip of left foot up from the floor. Bend the tip of the left foot. Set down your 
left hand lower than right knee a bit alike to scoop up the ? Phra Mae Dharanee' in 
the left hands. 

Step 2: set the right hand down from the knee. Perform alike batching up the 
powder that is Thra Mae Dharanee' into the left hand. Repeat this step for 3 times. 

Step 3: perform alike bringing powder from the left hand to cover the face at the 
upper part of the face at left cheek and right cheek. Repeat this step 3 times. 

Step 4: raise up your left hand and stretch palm up turn the palm to the face 
perform alike it's a mirror and look into the mirror. The right hand is at the same 
level of the chin to be 'Tha Khunpan Song Kra-jok' (Khunpan look into the mirror) 

Step 5: raise up your right hand over the head and perform alike to comb your hair 
3 times, then perform alike roll the bun by using the right hand roll the hair around 
from right to left 3 rounds. Perform the roll as 'Tak-si-na-vatra'. Your left hand 
perform alike press the hair down. 

Step 6: right hand press the bun up above the head 3 times. This form was called 
'Mae Phra Dharanee Beeb Muay Phom'. Repeat this step 3 times. 

Step 7: put your left foot on the floor simultaneously bend your body back to sit on 
the left heel. Left hand push back the hair up over the head. Right hand press or 
smooth the hair down to the right knee. The lower part of the arm lay on the knee. 
Raise up the tip of the right foot perform alike pressing the bun or smooth and lift 
it high. Repeat this step 3 times. The second direction (backward direction), 



34 



Step 8: you must repeat it three times, before complete the round 3, you must raise 
up your left elbow high. Raise your body up by stand on your tip of left foot, use it 
as a fulcrum point to turn around your body. Then lift your left knee up (turn 
around by twist your left knee as fulcrum) and move your right knee by twist it 
along the left knee. 

Step 9: kneel your knee down on the floor simultaneously use left hand to lift up 
your bun over the head, right hand press or pull the bun from the upper part to the 
lower part of your head and go further to the right calf. Look along the left hand 
while it's moving up. 

Step 10: while your right knee sit on the floor. Lift up the right foot and bend up 
the tip of the right foot along your body. Now your left hand perform 'Rum Bung 
Nah' high above the face, 

Step 11: bend your body back to sit on your right heel, set down the lower part of 
your arm to lay on the left knee. Slowly swirl your right hand from the frontward 
to the backward one round. Slowly 'rum' from lower to higher level, from the 
beside to the front side. This form is called 'rum soong' since you must turn the 
palm side to the front side and raise your right hand up high above your head. And 
twist your palm toward the front side alike 'rum nar' but it must be higher than your 
head. 

The third direction (the left side direction), 

Chuk Pang Pud Nar for the third time, (perform the same as the first time) 

Step 1: turn round your body to the right hand. Twist your body to the right side 
and kneel down your left knee. Raise up your right knee high and put your right 
foot beyond the left knee. Raise the tip of the right foot up. Lay your right arm on 
the right knee. Raise up your left hand above the head. Perform the dance called 
'Rum Nar Soong Berk A-Roon' or 'Bung A-bai Berk Far Fiuk Fiunt Jai Muang' 
raise your left hand up high above your head. And your eyes look anything high. 
Turn your head left and right then straight on. 

Step 2: let your left hand down. Use the right hand preparing to 'Chuk Pang Phad 
Nah' for the second time. Scoop 'Mae Phra Dharanee' into hands three times. 
Repeat the same step as the first round of 'Chuk Pang Phad Nah', 

The fourth direction, (the right direction), 

When finish the second time of "Chuk Pang Phad Nah" your face is now turn to 
the right direction. That means the direction you perform the first time "Chuk Pang 
Phad Nar" is the front direction. Which you must turn around to the back direction 
continue to dance until completing the first round of "Chuk Pang Phad Nar". The 
second round "Chuk Pang Phad Nar" will turn to the left direction. When you press 



35 



the bun and turn round to the backside the same as the first round "Chuk pang Phad 
Nar", you will turn to the right direction 

Step 1: Then bend you body backward to sit on the right heel. Which your left 
knee stretch up the tip of your left foot raised high. Your left arm lay on your left 
knee. Knee your right knee down on the floor. Raise right hand above head. Lift 
the face up and your eyes watch something high above. Sit with your right heel. 

Step 2: stand up let your hands down along your body. Now your left foot lay 
beyond your right foot. The right foot lay skew behind. 

Step 3: step out your right foot to lay beyond the left foot. Then turn left which is 
turn your face to the front direction. Then go back to your corner by "Kow yang" 
or " step backward with the " yang Sam Khum" or "Yang Suk Ka-same " then bend 
down your body to salute the counterpart one time. Then it's the completion of the 
dancing performance 



36 



Muay Thai Terminology 



Below you will find common words used during training and or within the 
environment of the Thai culture. Please note that the transition from Thai to 
English often changes depending on pronunciation. 



Common Phrases. 



Hello 


Sa wadee 


Goodbye 


La kon 


Good morning 


Aroon sa wadee 


Good evening 


Sayan sa wadee 


Good night 


Ra tree sa wadee 


My name is 


Chan shue 


Thanks, very much 


Khob chai mark 


You are welcome 


Khob ton rub tharn 


x ou are welcome 


i narn sa di Qee rnuee 


I speak English 


Chan pood dai tae pasa 
Anglish 


I can't speak Thai 


Chan ma chark saha rat 


Please speak more slowly 


Prode pood hai sah kwa nee 


I don't understand 


Chan mai khao chai 


Can you help me 


Shuay chan noi doi ma 


I am from the U.S. 


Chan ma chark saha rat 


How do you say 


Tharn wa yarng rai? 


What time is it 


We la tao rai 



37 



Gym, Studio environment 



Boxing teacher 


Kru Muay 


Teacher accepts new student 


Khuen Kroo 


Respect to teacher 


Wai Kru 


Promote 


Jad 


Anklet 


Aenken 


Block 


Bat 


To kick 


Dtae 


To hit 


Dtee 


Throw 


Ting 


To box / boxing 


Dtoi 


Shadow boxing 


Dtoi Lorn 


To thrash 


Faad 


To duck 


Lop 


To dodge/evade 


Pang nga 


Left/to left 


Saai 


Right/to right 


Kwaa 


Camp 


Kai 


Boxing Camp 


Kai Muay 


Boxing Stadium 


Sanam Muay 


Professional boxing 


Muay acheep 


Novice bout 


Gawn welaa 


International boxing 


Muay sakon 


Main bout 


Koo ek 


Ring ropes 


Sangwien 


Weight category 


Run 


Rating 


Andap 


Jump 


Kradot 


Referee 


Gamagan 


Break (referee) 


Yaek 


Judging 


Gaan Dadsin 


To judge/decide 


Dadsin 


Champion 


Champ 


Boxer 


Nak Muay 



38 



Fight 


Chok 


Box up 


Mud Soei 


Red corner 


Faidaeng 


Blue corner 


Fainamnerng 


Boxer's shorts 


Gangkeng Muay 


Gloves 


Nuam 


Fight music 


Dontree Muay 


Groin guard 


Grajaab 


Weight 


Namnak 


Punching 


Garsawb 


Ring of Charms 


Kruang ruang 


Ceremonial headband 


Mongkon 


Ring 


Weh tee 



Upper Body Techniques 



Swing 


Sawing 


Block 


Bat 


To hit 


Dtee 


Jab 


Yaeb 


To punch 


Dtee mat 


Hook punch 


Hook 


Straight punch 


Mat drong 


Swing punch. 


Mud Wieng 


Uppercut 


Mat at 


Elbow 


Sawk or Sok 


Jab Elbow 


Sawk Tad 


Levering Elbow 


Sawk Hud 


Smashing 
Downward Elbow 


Sawk Tong 


Diagonal Elbow 


Sawk Chieng 


Chopping Elbow 


Sawk Sob 


Double Elbow 


Sawk ku 


Reverse Elbow 


SawkKlab 


To Elbow 


Dtee Sawk 



39 



Lower Body Techniques 



Turning kick 


Chaoraked faad 


Knee kick 


Dtae kao 


Kick with foot 


Dtae tao 


Roundhouse 


Dtae wiang 


Over arm knee kick 


Kao kong 


Jumping knee kick 


Kao lov 


Frontal knee kick 


Kao drong 


Jumping kick 


Kradot dtae 


Push with sole foot 


Teep 


Foot thrust to rear 


Teep dan lang 


Heel push 


Teep dueh son 


l 

Forward foot push 


Teep drong 


Stop kick 


Neb 


Knee 


Kao 


MI dlglll Klltrt 


JVdU lUllc 


O U 111 LI 111 ivilcc 


rv<t u nunc 


CfTl oil lznap 4-fk irYtck loir 
Olllilll IVllCC IU lilt ICg 


JV<1U llUl 


Fast or rabbit knee 
to legs 


Kao Kratai 


Farewell knee 


Kao La 


Flying knee 


Kao Loi 


Lower knee 


Kao Lod 



40 



Basic Body Anatomy (Also Main Targets) 



Head 


Hua 


Top of the head 


Grammon srisa 


Forehead 


Na paag 


Temples 


Kamab 


Jawbone 


Kagangai 


Chin 


Look kang 


Adam's apple 


Look gradueak 


Eyes 


Dtaa 


Nose 


Jamook 


Mouth 


Baak 


Neck area 


Taitoi 


Floating rib 


Chaikrong 


Heart 


Huajai 


Region under the heart 


Daihauchai 


Solar plexus 


Limpee 


Stomach 


Tong 


Lower stomach 


Tong noi 


Kidneys 


Dtai 


Fist 


Mat 


Elbow 


Sawk or sok 


Leg 


Kaa 


Knees 


Kao 


Shin 


Na kaeng 


Foot 


Tae 


Instep 


Lang tao 


Knee 


Kao 



41 



Basic Numbers 1 Thru 10 



One 


Nueng 


Two 


Sorng 


Three 


Sarm 


Four 


See 


Five 


Ha 


Six 


Hok 


Seven 


Ched 


Eight 


Paed 


Nine 


Kao 


Ten 


Sib 



42 



CHERNG MUAY 



Cherng Muay means methods of the usage of fists, feet, knees and elbows (in 
Muay Thai art) as the skills of attack defense. Cherng Muay are divided into four 
methods (4 Cherng); 

Cherng Mad 15 Cherng 

Cherng Sok 24 Cherng 

Cherng Khao 11 Cherng 

Cherng Thao 15 Cherng 



43 



MAD 15 Cherng 



KA JIG KHA 



The boxer throws the straight left or the 
swing left first to the chin, nose, or the 
eyes of the opponent. Then hurry to attack 
with another trick. This trick used for 
attack, defense, or escape. 
To protect: the straight fist: Throws the 
right punch, if to protect the swing fist. 
Moves the right arm to right side. 
To counter: throws the right knee to the 
left rib of the opponent. 




Straight fi 




fTTT l l,l.,lll,i"l"ilJ.HJ, l ,JJJ..NN 

The boxer throws the straight right punch and twists the body by that punch, stepping the right 
foot forwards (the boxer must consider about the distance); the target is the chin or the heart of 
the opponent. This trick used for attack, defense or escape (if for attack use both left and the 
right alternately) 

To protect: brushes it with the fist or the arm which in the front, 

If the boxer is a right handed, fighter use the left fist or the left arm, to wipe the punch out to the 
left side. 

To counter: throws the tiptoe to the opponent's abdomen to prevent the punch, if the boxer is a 
left handed fighter do opposite. 



44 



The straight punch, also known as Thaprai Lorn Singkhon,' is one of the 
heaviest punches in all of Muay Thai. It can be used in attack and defense. If 
used properly, it can stop your opponent right in his tracks. However, if used at 
the wrong moment it may put a boxer in a difficult situation because if the 
punch misses the target the boxer will have wasted a lot of energy and will be 
left exposed to a counter attack. 

The strength of this punch comes from moving the foot forward and from the 
transfer of force from the leg to the moving body and finally to the fist. To 
further enhance the power in this punch the boxer must twist his hips, waist, 
and shoulder while punching. The result is a very powerful blow that draws 
upon (a) the boxer's weight, (b) the muscles of the feet, legs, hips, waist, and 
shoulders, and (c) the proper technique in releasing the punch for its 
forcefulness. 

For a right-handed boxer, the basic stance is with the left foot forward. From 
this stance, the left foot slides forward. At the same time, the boxer pushes off 
the ball of the right foot, pushing his body forward. Next, the boxer should turn 
his hips and right shoulder toward the opponent, twisting the waist 
simultaneously. Pivot around the torso, straighten the right arm, and release the 
punch. When releasing the punch, the fist can be either at a right angle, open, 
or closed, with the arm fully extended and the elbow locked as the target is hit. 
To ensure maximum efficiency, the fist must be in a straight line as if punching 
through a wall. Maximum power is achieved once the left shoulder is in line 
with the hips at the completion of the punch. 

Note that the chin should be tucked in at all times, and the head should move 
from right to left along with the punch. Do not lower the left arm while 
delivering the punch as this will expose the body to counter attack by the 
opponent. Do not show in advance, by moving your hand backward, that you 
are going to throw a straight punch. After delivering the straight punch the fist 
must be returned quickly to the guard up position. 

There are also two other versions of the straight punch. First, there is the 
straight punch throwing the whole body. This straight punch uses the force of 
gravity thrown in the perpendicular plane. The boxer throws himself forward 
and the momentum of his falling body is added to the punch making it very 
powerful. To practice this punch, start by standing at ease with guards up. Then 
move either foot forward and use the rear leg to push the body forward, similar 
to falling forward, towards the target. The momentum from this movement is 
transferred to the arm and fist, giving the punch its characteristic power. 



45 



❖ The other version of the straight punch is the over the shoulder straight punch. 
This punch is released by a sudden jerking and twisting of the body. It derives 
its power solely from the muscles and is less powerful than the other versions 
of the straight punch. It is best used in close fights and emergencies. To 
practice this punch, when a punch is thrown with the left hand, the right hand is 
automatically jerked backwards. As a result, the muscles of the shoulder, back, 
stomach, waist, and the two legs will work together transferring the weight 
from one side of the body to the other. This twist of the body prepares one for 
an over the shoulder punch with the right hand. This twist should be practiced 
so that one is comfortable throwing the over the shoulder punch using the twist 
of the body and the corresponding transfer of body weight as the source of the 
punch's power. 

Defending 

1 . Protect with the fists and move away. 

2. Lower the body. 

3. Brush to the left. 

4. Brush to the right. 

5. Counter with a kick. 

6. Counter with a punch. 

7. Move to the side and thrust kick. 

8. Move to the side and knee. 

9. Move to the side and elbow. 

10. Move to the side and kick. 



46 



«N HAK DAN 



The boxer throws the transversely punch 
(from right to left) to the opponent's jaws or 
the rib. This trick is used for attack, defense or 
escape. 

To protect wipes the left-hand back. 

To counter: throws the straight right punch to 

the opponent's chin and strikes the left knee to 

the opponent's right rib. If the boxer is the left 

fighter, reversed the descriptions from right to 

left. 



r* r 




PR AK AH FFRD 



Turns front side punch 



The boxer steps, with the right 
foot and strikes the right 
uppercut to the opponent's chin. 
This trick is used for defense or 
escape. 

To protect wipes the left hands 
down and leans the head back. 
To counter: strikes the left 
tiptoe to the opponent's 
abdomen and throws the elbow, 
to the opponent's face. If the 
boxer is a left handed fighter, 
reverse the descriptions from 
right to left. 




47 



The boxer turns back the 
punch, bends the elbow and 
the inner wrist, twists the 
body to the left and steps 
forwards then throws the back 
punch down at the opponent's 
nose or the left jaws. This 
trick used for attack. 
To protect hold up the left 
hand and wipe over, then 
sway back at the same time. 
To counter: throw obliquely 
the left-knee to the 
opponent's right 
Rib, if the boxer is a left 
handed fighter, reverse the 




descriptions from right to left. 



INTRA KWANG JAK 



Throw the lengthily 
punch 



The boxer holds up the right 
fist in the front, straighten the 
arm, steps the right foot 
forwards then strikes the punch 
down to the neck or the nose of 
the opponent. This trick, is used 
for attack, defense, or escape in 
the distance of fists. 
To protect move the straight 
left hand above the head. 
To counter: throw the left 
swing kick to the opponent's 
right rib, if the boxer is a left 
handed fighter, reverse the 
descriptions from right to left. 






48 



PHALAK HAM POK 



The uppercuts 



The boxer steps the right foots 
close to the opponent, and throws 
the right uppercut up to the heart 
or the abdomen or the rib of the 
opponent. This is used for attack 
which, is close up to the body and 
used for defense immediately 
attacked. 

To protect: wipe the punch to 
the left by the left arm, twist the 
body to the right, turn the side to 
the opponent and hold on to the 
left elbow to guard the left rib. 
To counter: throw the left knee 
to the rib or the abdomen of the 
opponent, if the boxer is a left 
handed fighter, reverse the 
descriptions from right to left. 



Uppercuts are the only punch that it's safe to throw with either hand. But, that is 
only if you are throwing them from the inside. An uppercut thrown from the 
outside is very bad mistake to make. It leaves you vulnerable to numerous 
counters. I cannot stress enough that if you are going to throw an uppercut, throw it 
from the inside! Like the other punches, you don't only use your arm when 
throwing an uppercut. The power from an uppercut comes from the lifting motion, 
and you lift with your legs. You use very little arm movement. Bringing your hand 
back to throw and uppercut leaves you very vulnerable. So remember to use your 
legs to get the desired power. Uppercuts can be very dangerous, because they are 
hard to see coming if you throw them right. If your opponent has his head down, 
looking at your feet, an uppercut is a very effective punch. Following a right 
uppercut with a left hook is one of the best combinations you can throw. 




49 



PAJGH CHANG SAN 



Throws the punch and kick at the same time 



The boxer throws the right punch to the opponent's chin and swings the left kick to the 
opponent's rib. This trick is used for attack; defense or escapes with the opponent who work with 
wided angle guards. 

To protect: wipe back both of the fists of the opponent then turn right and press down the right 
elbow to guarded the opponent's kick. 

To counter: throw the left foot. Or left shin to the opponent's rib. 
If the boxer is a left handed fighter reverse the descriptions from right 



HAHUMAN THAWAI VfAEK 



A pair of upper-cuts 



Throwing both uppercuts to the 
opponent's chin and jumping to 
strike the knees to the chest of 
the opponent uses this 
movement. This trick, is used for 
attack, defense, escape or while 
the opponent was careless. 
To protect jump back to escape 
from the distance of punches and 
move the elbows to cover the 
abdomen. 

To counter: throw the right 
swing kick to the opponent's left 
leg or throw the tip of foot then 
follow by another trick. 



50 





LUANG DID HERA 





















Throws a punch and the knee at the same time 



The boxer throws the right swinging punch to left jaw and at the same time strikes the knee to 
the right rib of the opponent. This trick, is used the same as KON PAJON CHANG SAN 
To protect: wipes the opponent's punch by the left arm and sways to the right side then covers 
the right rib with the right elbow. 
To counter: use the knee as PAJON CHANG SAN 



ONGKOT K1IANG PR AK AN 



Twirled fists 



This trick is used when the opponent 
fights and steps back to escape at the 
same time, in the distance of the 
punches throw them both, left and 
right punches to the opponent's jaws. 

To protect guard both left and 
right hands to cover both sides of the 
jaws. 

To counter: throw the right or left 
tip toes to opponent's abdomen. 




51 



Lead Hand Hook 



Usually boxers lead hand is his left hand, so use term "left hook" instead of "lead 
hand hook" if it's closer to Western Boxing terminology and you are fond of it. If 
by any means your lead hand is your right hand (may be you are southpaw or may 
be you are ambidextrous), then reverse the descriptions from left to right and tread 
lead hand hook as right hook. 

It's seen only from the peripheral vision. You see the body torque, then impact. If 
you don't have that right hand up by your chin, it's light's out. Cracking the jaw, the 
head is twisted; the brain becomes disconnected from the body, which falls like a 
load of potatoes. 

It's a foundation knock out punch. 

How is this punch thrown? With a lot of practice! As I was taught the punch, the 
rear hand is tight, hand against the rear side of the chin. It begins with the hips, 
solidified by the lead foot that bears 90% of the weight. The torso torques, the 
elbow lifts, the forearm makes a right angle with the lead arm, the palm is facing 
the mat, the chin is tucked by the lead shoulder, the rear hand against the rear chin. 
The power is generated from the hips and torso, connected tightly to the right- 
angled lead arm that confesses the whole body's power at the moment of impact. 

You've got to work the body united with the punch 10,000 times under a trainer's 
watchful eye to get it right. 

Throwing a lead hook the proper way is one of the hardest things for a beginning 
fighter to do. It is not a natural motion that we use in every day life. Unlike the jab 
and the cross, which are similar to grabbing something, the lead hook is unlike any 
motion we make in our everyday lives. For this reason, it is probably the hardest 
punch to throw. But be patient with it, because a properly thrown lead hook is one 
of the most lethal punches in a boxers arsenal. 

Like with any other punch, you want to remember to use your entire body when 
throwing it, from your shoulders and hands down to your feet. I'm going to use a 
persons feet as the starting point of throwing a lead hook. Remember that all of the 
motions I am about to describe come simultaneously. Turn your lead foot inward, 
while throwing your hook. You don't have to turn it much, but that little inward 
movement of your feet adds to the power of your hook. I am now going to move 
up to your hips. Turn your lead hip inward in the same motion as you turn your 
foot. Using your hips when throwing a lead hook multiplies the power of a hook 
ten fold. I am now going to move to your shoulder. Again, turn this, the same way 
that you turned your hip and foot. Realize that you haven't used your hand in any 
of these motions yet. Practice turning your lead foot, hip and shoulder inward at 
the same moment. 



52 



Now, we are going to put the final piece on throwing a good lead hook into the 
puzzle. Your lead hand should come across your body, stopping at the middle of 
your opponent. Your elbow should not come up too much. I see a lot of people 
over exaggerating how much the lead elbow should come up. Your elbow and your 
fist should not be parallel. For one, it leaves your body open to crosses when you 
do this. The second reason is it makes you vulnerable to a simple push on your lead 
elbow that leaves you off balance. The reason you don't follow through with a lead 
hook is because if you follow through and miss, you're very off balance, and 
balance is the key to Muay Thai boxing. It keeps you from being hit, and it has you 
in a position to hit. It is nice to finish every combination that you can with a lead 
hook, because it brings your body back into position. 

Lead Hook To The Head 

Hands up. Elbows in. Chin down. 

We'll work it from a forward bob position, immediately after a cross. There are 
many positions from which you can throw it, and many variations of the hook, but 
we'll look at a standard horizontal lead hook at chin level. 

Shift your weight onto your back foot as you turn out your lead heel. This is where 
the power comes from. 

Do not draw the hand back to throw your hook. This will telegraph the blow. 

Lead shoulder and lead hip turn in virtual unison as your weight is shifting onto the 
rear leg. 

Tight fist. THERE IS NO WRIST IN A HOOK. Lock the wrist, lining up your fist 
with your forearm. 

Throw the hook in a tight arc. The range of your hook ~ how far away the target is 
~ determines whether you use a horizontal or vertical fist. The rule is as follows: if 
the target is outside your elbow range, then use a vertical fist. Inside elbow range, 
then horizontal fist is all right. Don't confuse the two, though, for if you throw a 
hook with a horizontal fist outside your elbow range, you'll break your pinky and 
ring finger knuckles and/or the pinky carpal at the wrist. 

Hide your chin inside your shoulder as you hook. 

After your hook follows through the target, it converges in an ever tighter arc back 
to your guard position. Don't take wild swings with your hook. Once it has done its 
job, it comes back home. 

Two simple rules for throwing the hook which I always tell my students are 
"crushing peanuts, and come here". The "crushing peanuts" is what your lead foot 
does as you shift your weight. The "come here" is like you're motioning with your 
arm for someone to come over to you. 



53 



There are other hook variations ~ 
descending over the shoulder, etc. ~ 
mechanics outlined above. 



ascending, long range, shovel, slightly 
and they all follow the principles and 



Also, you will want to make sure your rear hand stays up and in — "talking on the 
telephone" ~ to cover the other side as you throw your hook. It's very very 
important. Shadowboxing in front of a mirror will help you watch and develop 
your form, and show you where your openings are. You want to know the 
openings you're giving before getting out on the floor with a good banger and 
finding out the hard way. 

The focus mitts and heavy bag will also give you valuable feedback about your 
hook. You will feel whether or not your power and snap are in the punch. When 
you get the hook right, it feels relatively effortless as you throw it, but the person 
wearing the focus mitt will feel like you just hit the mitt with a baseball bat. It is a 
very powerful punch. 

Again, probably the most important single aspect of the hook is the shift of weight. 
You must shift your weight when you hit. The rule is to hit with what you weigh. 
The hook is a prime example of this. 

This takes care of physical execution. But it says nothing of how you would apply 
it. There is a definite method to landing your hook. It has everything to do with the 
opponent's placement and motion, and your own momentary posture. I'll post some 
information on landing the hook later on, if anyone is interested in knowing. 

Lead Hook To The Liver 

There is nothing that slows down your opponent quicker than a well placed body 
punch. There are some fighters that you can hit in the head all day and no punch 
you throw will hurt them, but move your attack downward, and start working on 
their body, and your bound to start hurting even the toughest guy. A lead hook to 
the body is one of the easiest ways to stop and opponent in his tracks. You can take 
a slight step to your side and let it fly, or you can dip inward, and throwing a short 
half jab/hook to the inside. Either way is very effective. A lot of the great fighters 
like to throw the hook from the outside to the liver. This is a very, very devastating 
shot. But, you can also get to your opponent's liver from the inside. So remember 
that you have more than one option when you want to get that punch in. 
Sometimes when facing a good defensive fighter, you have very few options on 
where to hit him, so don't make it any harder than you have to, by ignoring areas 
that are legal to hit. 

For the inside lead hook, dip forward, weight on the lead leg. Don't lift the elbow. 
Shoot the punch in with the same basic body mechanics and go for the liver. 

If you take the time to add it to your arsenal, and do it with purpose and conviction, 
trained by someone who knows how to throw it, people will fear you and it. 



54 



An inside lead hook to the opponent's body should be thrown with the palm as 
follows: 45% between vertical and palm up. Why? The optimal inside lead hook 
hits the liver. The liver is just under the right side of your rib cage. You should try 
to dig it under and up. 

The hand positioning of the inside lead hook to the body should never be the same 
as the outside lead hook to the chin. The inside lead hook is a "digging up" motion, 
whereas the outside lead hook is a "crunching across" motion. 



I NflXA 

Cross switch punch 



The boxer throws the left 
uppercut to the opponent's abider 
men, steps to the right to throw 
the straight right punch to the 
opponent's chin and follows by 
throwing the left punch to the 
opponent's chin. This trick is used 
for attack. 

To protect escapes from the 
distance of the punch by stepping 
back and throwing the left foot to 
the opponent. 

To counter: if the opponent is 
close to the body deliver the right 
knee to the opponent's abdomen. 
If the boxer is a left handed 
fighter reverse the descriptions 
from right to left. 




55 



Throws the fists and elbows 



The boxer throws the right punch to the left jaw of the opponent and keeps on the right guard 
then strikes the elbow to the same target or to the opponent's neck at the same time. Then 
throws the swinging back elbow to the opponent's chin again. This trick is used for attack, 
defense and to escape. 

To protect wipes the opponent's punch to the left side by the left arm or throws the tip of foot 
to the opponent's abdomen. 

To counter: strikes the right kick to the opponent's rib. 

If the boxer is a left handed fighter, reverse the descriptions from right to left. 



RUESEE LITEM YAN 



The unreal fists 



This trick can be used to fight 
with both of left or right 
handed fighters and also can 
use both left and right 
punches by pushing out the 
right but throwing the left 
punch. Hold the right fist in 
the action of throwing but 
stop it let the opponent 
escape by swaying to his right 
side then throw the left punch 
to the opponent's jaws. The 
user can change to other 
targets. 




56 



HA HUM AH JONG T ANON 




Throws the back punch from above 



The boxer bends the right elbow's joint until the right fist stay at the ear level while the left fist is 
oblique to the front then sways to the left and throws the right punch to the opponent's nose. 
This trick is used for defense. 

To protect jumps back and throw the left kick to the opponent's chest or abdomen. 
If the boxer is a left handed fighter, reverse the descriptions from Right to left. 



57 



SOK24 Cherng 



POONG NOK 



Front elbow 



The boxer throws the left elbow while holding 
the lower part of the arm near the left ear to 
the opponent's rib. Use this trick for attack or 
defense. 

To protect: throws the left fist for wards, pulls 
down the right elbow to guard the right rib. 
To counter strikes to the opponent's abdomen. 
If the boxer is a left handed fighter, reverse the 
description from right to left. 




SDK FAN HAH 



Stribes the front elbow 



The boxer uses the right elbow by bending the 
arm and inner wrist while the front hand is on 
the shoulder then throws the elbow to the 
opponent's face or the clavicle. This trick is used 
for attack, defense or escape. 
To protect holds on to the left arm. 
To counter: throws the shin or the knee to the 
opponent' right rib, or strikes the left foot to the 
opponent' s abdomen it. 
If the boxer is a left handed fighter, reverse the 
descriptions from right to left. 




58 



The elbow chop, or f Sog Fan Nah f in Thai, is also called Tarng Pa f in 
MuayThai. The name Tarng Pa is derived from an ancient farming technique 
used to clear fields before harvesting season. Tarng Pa describes the swift 
swinging of the sickle when clearing fields, an action that is similar to that of 
the swift movement of the elbow in the elbow chop. The elbow is like the 
sickle; the Tarng Pa is the actual chopping motion. In this move, the elbow 
must be delivered in a diagonal direction moving from a high position 
downwards. 

Of all the elbow attacks used in MuayThai, the elbow chop is the most 
fundamental. There are, however, many other elbow attacks that are used, for 
instance: the elbow strike, the elbow fling, the elbow uppercut, the elbow prop, 
the elbow hit, the elbow stake, the elbow nudge, the reverse elbow, and so 
forth. In MuayThai, the elbow is the shortest of all weapons and is extremely 
useful in close quarter fighting. The elbow is the hardest and sharpest point of 
the body and causes great pain, swelling and cuts when it strikes one's 
opponent. The most effective target areas are the head, face, chest, and ribcage. 
The elbow chop can be used in many situations. To counter a punch you can 
either deliver a straight punch, sway outward and then deliver an elbow chop, 
or you can deliver a straight punch, sway inward and throw an elbow chop. 
The elbow chop can also be used to counter a kick. There are four ways to do 
so. First, you can push the leg and return with the elbow chop. Second, you can 
block and hold the kick and deliver the elbow chop. Third, you can block and 
hold the kick and then turn and do the elbow chop. Fourth, you can block, hold 
and pull the leg and then retaliate with an elbow chop. 

You can also counter an elbow with an elbow chop. Here are some ways to do 
so: Block and counter with an elbow chop; attempt to deliver the elbow chop 
before the opponent can strike; sway out of reach and then retaliate with an 
elbow chop; Sidestep away and return with an elbow chop. 
The elbow chop is also a useful counter attack to knee strikes. Use it to good 
effect when your opponent is trying to hold you so that he can deliver the knee. 



59 



Defend against the elbow chop 

Since the elbow is a close quarter fighting weapon, the best weapon to use to 
counter it is the knee. Here are some methods to counter the elbow chop by using 
the knee 

1 . Sway out of reach and return with the knee. 

2. Move back out of reach and return with the knee. 

3. Sway outward and return with the knee. 

4. Block with the hands or arms and return with the knee. 

5. Hold and pull the arm and then return with the knee. 

6. Block the elbow while simultaneously attacking with the knee. 



PR A YAIKAE 



Swinging elbow 



The boxer swings up the tip of the right of 
elbow to the opponent's jaws and steps the right 
foot forwards. This trick is used for attack, 
defense or escape. 

To protect wipes the left arm or throws the left 
arm to the left. 

To counter: does the same as the tricks in 
SOK FAN NAH (strikes the front elbow). 
If the boxer is a left handed fighter reverse the 
descriptions from right to left. 




Swinging elbow (Horizontal Elbow) 

From the basic stance, lower and pull in the hand of the elbow with which you will 
strike. Raise your shoulder on that side as high as possible to compensate as guard. 
Your body motions should be the same as for the hook punch except that you must 
strike with the point of your elbow rather than with your fist. The elbow strike is 
also done at a closer range than the hook. 

Again, your hips, shoulders and feet move simultaneously in coordination, 
otherwise, you will not gain the maximum potential power for this attack. 



60 



When using the elbow attack, your elbow should be between 45 and 90 degrees 
angle away from your head. You must hit with the sharp tip of the elbow bone and 
not the bottom of your forearm. You will want to hit with the bone ridge located 
toward the inside of your arm. 

You must lean your body away with more emphasis than for the hook to make 
impact with your elbow bone while maintaining correct body position. 

When using the horizontal elbow, it is important to first clear the path and remove 
his guard because an experienced Thai boxing opponent always keeps his guard 
up. If your opponent does not drop his guard, you must strike down his guard arm 
and then strike with your elbow. 

On the elbow strikes, try to hit your target with just the sharp point of the bone so 
that it barely yet forcefully makes contact. This is the blow that will cut your 
opponent's face. It is best to use this technique to strike his forehead, eyebrow, or 
cheekbone. Alter completing the elbow strike, snap your elbow back next to your 
ribs and bring your hand to your face to block a counterstrike. When you use the 
elbow, it is important to follow all the way through with your target. 

Since the body is already turned after the elbow is thrown, it is possible to bring 
the elbow back upwards and strike again as the fighter returns to the basic stance. 

Twist your body back into position and allow the elbow to follow the same path as 
you return to your stance. Your hips, shoulders, and feet should all move at once. 
You should try once again to hit with the sharp elbow bone to cut your opponent's 
face with the bottom of your elbow for a knockout. 



61 



The boxer uses the right elbow which is bent 
straight and turns the forehand into the right 
shoulder then steps the right foot towards. Throws 
the right elbow up to the chin. This trick is used for 
escape. 

To protect: wipes the right fist or right arm down, 
or strikes to the opponent's abdomen with the right 
foot 

If boxer is a left handed fighter reverse the 
descriptions from right to left 



THING PI 



The invert elbow 



The boxer uses the right elbow. Raises the 
elbow-joint up while pressing the fist down. 
Throws the right elbow to the opponent's bridge 
or the forehead from high to tow then steps 
forwards close to the opponent's body. This trick 
is used for attack. 

To protect raises the diagonal left arm to 
counter. 

To counter: throws the right knee straight to 
the opponent's chest. 

If the boxer is a left handed fighter reverse the 
descriptions from right to left. 



62 



The boxer bends the right elbow-joint a little and 
throws it to the opponents face then steps the right 
foot forwards. Turns the body and steps the left 
foot to the opponent's body. Throws the left elbow 
to the left side of the back ribs. May-be throwing it 
to the opponent's abdomen again. This trick is 
used for stepping back to defense. 
To protect: raises up the left arm to block it, At 
the same time swings the left knee the opponent's 
rib, or strikes to the opponent's abdomen with the 
right foot, Then follows by the same trick. 
If the boxer is a left handed fighting reverse the 
descriptions from right to left. 



HUM TOKMAN 



Strikes the swing back elbow 



This trick is similar to the trick in 
SAI LUEW LANG (Sok Chieng Lang: skew back 
elbow) but throws the elbow straight to the 
opponent's face. This trick is used when the 
opponent just to attack. 
To counter: throw the straight right punch to 
the opponent's chin or the neck. 
To protect wipes up above the head with the 
left arm or raises it to guard. 
If the boxer is a left handed fighter reverse the 
descriptions from right to left. 





63 



The boxer bends the left elbow while turning the tip of 
the fist to the right. Strikes the left elbow to the 
opponent's chin or Adam's apple then embraces the 
opponent's chin or Adam's apple then embraces the 
opponent's neck which leaves the head bent back and 
throws the right elbow to the opponent's face again. 
This trick is used for defense. 
To protect raises the right arm to wipe in the right 
side and blocks the opponent's right elbow by raising 
the left hand up. 

To counter: throws the right knee straight to the 
opponent's left rib, or throws both of the knees 
alternately to the opponent's abdomen. 
If the boxer is a left handed fighter, reverse the 
descriptions from right to left. 



JAK KAUAI 



Swinging back elbow 



The boxer bends the right elbow in to the 
front and overturns the hand to the backhand. 
Holds on to the right arm at the level of the 
opponent's chest or chin and turns the body 
back to the left the weight on the left foot, 
then swings back the right elbow to the 
opponent's jaws or chin. This trick is used for 
defense or escape. 

To counter: inserts the left or right hand in 
the opponent's arm and pulls down the 
opponent's neck in the front with the other 
hand, then throws the knee to the opponent's 
face or chin. 

If the boxer is a left handed fighter reverse the I 
descriptions from right to left. 



64 




This trick is used when the fighter attacks with the 
right fist, kick or elbow and misses the targets then 
does not take it back to the same place as the 
beginning. He has turned the right side to the 
opponent; you could do like this; holds the diagonal 
elbow by the right with the lower part of the Right 
arm level of the chest and swings back to the 
opponent's chin or Adam's apple. This trick used 
when the opponent rushes in. 
To protect wipes to the left with the left hand and 
sways the head to the right. 
To counter: throws the powerful left foot to the 
opponent's calf by swinging it to the right. (Beware 89 
of the opponent's left elbow) 
If the boxer is a left handed fighter reverse the 
descriptions from right to left. 




Shakes elbow 



This trick can use both elbows. Use when one 
loses the balance of the body and is put under 
the opponent's armpits such as under the left of 
armpit; push the left arm and the head out to the 
backside of the opponent. Insert the left foot 
between the opponent's legs while the right foot 
stays behind, the right arm lies on the right leg, 
bend the elbow-joint then twist the body to swing 
back the right elbow and strike the left knee to 
the opponent's left leg while his face is bent 
down strike with the right elbow 
To protect hold on to the elbow and the right 
arm to guard 

To counter: duck the body and pull down the 
opponent's head with left arm, bend the right 
elbow and turn back by the left then strike the 
right elbow to the opponent's face. 




65 



PASUTHA SATAN 



Beats alternately with both 
elbows 



The boxer throws both of the elbows, left and 
right alternately the same as the trick in SOK 
FAN NAH (SOK FUN NA: strikes the front elbow) 
then steps the right foot towards the opponent, 
if he escapes by stepping back follow him by 
throwing the left elbow by turning the body 
back and strike the opponent's chain or the left 
ribs. This trick is used for attack defense or 
escape. 

To protect throw the knee to the opponent's 
rib. 

If the boxer is a left handed fighter reverse the 
descriptions from right to left. 




YAH YOTHEE 



Presses the elbow back 



This trick is used when the opponent 
attacks from behind, by striking back 
with the left or the right elbow which 
pushes out the opponent to sway back 
then throw the swinging back elbow to 
the opponent's abdomen or rib. This 
trick is used when the opponents rush 
to enfold the back of body. 
To protect: Hold up both hand guards, 
both elbows protect the chest and 
abdomen, both fists protect to the neck. 
To counter: throw the right or the left 
kick to the opponent's leg which puts 
off his balance. 





67 



AKKEE SONG SANG 



Throws the elbow and 
the punch 



The boxer throws the uppercut-punch 
to the opponent's face, and strikes 
the right elbow to the opponent's rib. 
Use alternately left and right to 
counter the attack. 
To protect: wipes the opponent's 
left punch down with the right 
Fist, blocks the opponents elbow with 
the left arm then twists the body to 
the right and blocks the opponent's 
left knee with the hip. 





68 



KAMPANG POOPA 



Swinging back elbow 
alternately 



This trick is used when the opponent attacks 
from behind. Throw back the elbows while the 
other one swing back to the opponent's face 
and the either one swings back to the 
opponent's abdomen in alternate actions by 
quick speeds. This trick is used when you lose 
balance or throws the punch to the opponent 
and misses the target. 

To protect: step very close to the opponent all 
the time. 

To counter: insert the arm under the 
opponent's armpits and bend the opponent's 
neck down aside by pressing the inner wrist 
then throws up the knee to the opponent's chin 
or face. 




NAXA KAB HANG 



Throws elbows and knees 



The boxer throws the right elbow to the opponent's 
face and strikes the opponent's right rib with a knee at ™ 
the sometime. This trick is used for attack or defense. 
To protect: blocks the opponent's right elbow by 
raising the left arm, and sways the body to press downs 
the right elbow to guard the right rib in order to press 
against the left knee of the opponent 
To counter: throws the straight knee to the 
opponent's abdomen 



69 



Jumping to attack uses this trick, which is 
similar to the trick in CHUEY KANG (Kao Koo) 
but changed to use the knee or the elbow 
(Choose one of them) to attack the opponent's 
abdomen: This trick is used for attack defense 
or escape. 

To protect: steps back and block the 
opponent's abdomen, This trick is used for 
attack defense or escape 
To protect: steps back and blocks the 
opponent's elbow with the left arm then guards 
the opponent's knee by raising the right arm. 
To counter: strikes to the opponent's knee or 
abdomen with the right foot to put off his 
balance then uses other tricks such as, hit by 
the straight punch or by the front elbow. 




SUDAN MA 




Throws the elbow to the back 



This elbow trick is used when the opponent attacks and puts his head under the armpit. If put 
under the left armpit, step the left foot inside between the opponent feet, sway the body to the left 
and press the opponent's head down while striking the knee to the opponent's left knee, so he loses 
his balance and bends the head down to the front Then throw the swinging back elbow to the 
opponent's face while turning back to follow the elbow at the same time. 
To protect raise the right arm up to cover the face. 

To counter: use the elbow trick in KWANG SABAD NA (Sok Salad: shakes elbows) 
If the opponent is put under the left armpit, reverse The descriptions from right to left 



70 



YDTHA KLUEH TAP 



The boxer uses the left elbow. Bend the 
left arm with the tip of the back fist 
pointed to the right arm while holding on 
the right arm which turns to forehand and 
the tip of the fist pointed to the back then 
twist the body to the right a little. Then 
throw the power of both elbows to the 
opponent's chin or Adam's apple. This trick 
is used for defense or escape. 
To protect: jump away from the distance 
of the elbow and knee 
To counter: strikes the foot to the 
opponent's chest then use another trick. 
If the boxer is a left handed fighter, 
reverse the descriptions from Right to left. 




YAH SONG KDRN 




Throws the elbow to the back 



This elbow trick is used when the opponent attacks close to the back of the body. Use the left and 
right elbows to strike back alternately to the opponent's abdomen or to the left or to the right of the 
ribs. While striking the elbows be sure that the tip of them oblique a little to the back. 
To protect: enfolds the arms to or the chest very tight. 

To counter: insert the hand under the opponent's armpits, catch the opponent's necks with that 
hand and pull down one side then throw up the one of the knee to the opponent's chin or face. 



71 



KDN TEE THANG 



To plant the elbows 



These elbow tricks used when the opponent 
lose his balance and steps in. If the opponent 
steps in to the right: strike the right elbow to 
his back. If the opponent steps in to the left: 
strikes the left elbow to his back. If he steps 
in the front: strikes the both of elbows or one 
of them to the opponent's back or you may 
also throw the knee to the opponent" chin. 
To protect: hold on to both fists to cover 
your neck and both elbow to cover the chest. 
To counter: if you're got the gap or the 
occasion to escape turn back and throw the 
left or the right elbow to the opponent's 
chest. 



Throws the swinging back | 
elbow 



This elbow trick is used when the opponent 
throws the elbow or the punch and misses the 
targets, such as: throws the right punch and 
misses the target then turns up and steps the 
left foot at close quarters, at the same time 
strike to the opponent's face with the left 
swinging back elbow. This trick is used to 
attack. 

To protect: if the opponent strikes with the 
left elbow, raise the left arm to guard/ if the 
opponent strikes with the right elbow, raises 
the right arm to guard. 
To counter: throw the toot, which is the 
same side of the arm that is raise" to guard, 
to the opponent's rib and throw the opposite 
elbow to the opponent's neck or head. 



72 





RUESEE EOD YA 



This elbow trick is used for stepping close 
to the opponent and striking the straight 
elbow to the neck of the opponent, then 
swings it to the opponent's jaws. 
To protect twist the body and step back to 
escape from the opponent. 
To counter: throw the right or the left knee 
to the opponent's rib. 

You can study this trick by sitting and pitch 
the left elbow on the table, the tip of the hand 
pointing to the right side, don't move the 
elbow then tip the arm up very strong to 
stand straight. So you will know more of this 
trick. 




NAXft KLUEH GAI 



The spiral elbow 



This elbow trick is used for defense or 
escape when the opponent is tacked. By 
opening both elbows, while tip of both 
fists are close to each or other, then throw 
the left and the right elbow to the 
opponents chin or jaws with power. Each 
of the elbows may strike to both sides 
To protect: hold on to both arms to 
guard to both jaws. 
To counter: strike to the opponent's 
abdomen with the tip of foot- 
To protect: hold on to both arms to 
guard to both jaws. 
To counter: strike to the opponent's 
abdomen with the tip of foot 




73 



Muay Thai's Elbow Basics 



Probably the most feared of all techniques in Muay Thai are the Elbow Strikes. 
One well placed elbow can (and does!) end a fight during any round. 

There are a number of different strikes from numerous angles. I will try to discuss 
the most commonly used elbow strikes. 

A few bullet points first 

❖ When you strike with the elbow, you ideally want to hit with the sharp 
pointy bone. If you were to hold your arm in front of you as if you were 
throwing a hook punch, the part of the elbow that you want to strike with is 
the sharp pointy bone on the bottom. To make sure that you are striking with 
this part of the elbow rather than flush or with the top part of the bone, you 
should hold your open palm towards the target. 

❖ It is of utmost importance that you KEEP YOUR GUARD HIGH and tight 
when executing elbows. If you throw an elbow, rest assured you will be 
given one (or more) in turn. Keep your guard high so that your wrists are at 
eyebrow level. 

❖ DO NOT REACH for the elbow strike. With very few exceptions, the elbows 
should be thrown at "CLINCH RANGE". They are designed to be subtle, yet 
quick and powerful. If you extend to far from your body, they lose power 
and are easily seen and avoided. 

❖ Because you are standing very close to your opponent, you must widen your 
stance to maintain balance. Face it, when that close, your opponent will grab 
you and try to throw you off balance. Learn to use the elbows WHILE 
clinching... find your opening and strike quickly! 

❖ Keep your elbow glued to the side of your body for as long as possible when 
executing an elbow strike. This makes the elbow harder to see coming. Also, 
the closer the elbow is to your body (center mass) the harder the strike will 
be. (this is some physics principle that I've heard of but am unable to quote. I 
do know that this technique works though...) 

❖ KEEP YOUR CHIN DOWN AND YOUR SHOULDERS UP!!! 

HORIZONTAL ELBOW STRIKE: Thrown the same exact way as a hook punch 
in boxing. Make sure that BOTH feet rotate. 

UPPERCUT ELBOW STRIKE: This elbow is best used to defend against a punch. 
Step inside the punch, bending you legs a bit (just like Mike Tyson does when he's 
loading an uppercut). Bring the elbow straight up as you straighten your legs ALL 
THE WAY OVER YOUR HEAD! Keep the arm bent. Your hand should reach back 
and practically be touching your shoulder. As you straighten up and execute this 
elbow, you should rotate your body sideways to get the extra torque into the strike. 



74 



VERTICAL or DIAGONAL ELBOW STRIKE: This strike is one of the hardest to 
learn, yet the most effective. Most people are aware that a Thai boxer uses the 
Peek-a-Boo guard. If you throw a horizontal elbow, you only hit his guard. What 
you want to do in this case is throw your elbow so that it comes straight down the 
middle, in between his guarding hands. In many ways, this elbow is similar to the 
horizontal elbow, except that you lean over your opposite knee as you throw. For 
example, you are in an orthodox stance (left-side forward) You wish to throw the 
right handed DIAGONAL elbow strike. Step with your left foot sideways as you 
lean your upper body over your left knee. Throw the elbow as you are leaning so 
that the otherwise HORIZONTAL elbow is now striking VERTICALLY in between 
his guard hands. 

AXE or SPIKE ELBOW STRIKE: This strike is the basic overhand elbow strike. 
Raise your hand straight above your hand and SPIKE the elbow down onto your 
target. (Usually your opponent's head of collar bone) As you drop the elbow, also 
drop your weight with it by bending your knees to get your body weight into the 
blow. Remember to keep your back straight! DO NOT LEAN OVER INTO THE 
STRIKE! Additionally, when striking, keep the elbow close to your body. Do not 
attempt to extend outwards with the elbow. 

So, when you practice/execute this elbow strike, you should strike downwards with 
the elbow as close to your body as possible. Imagine someone who had his arms 
wrapped around your waist with his head tucked into you. You should try to strike 
with your elbow so that it hits the opponent in between your body and his head and 
pries between the two of you. You can create a wicked cut this way. Or, you can 
bring the elbow right down on his grape. 

BACKWARDS ELBOW STRIKE: This is an elbow strike that most people are 
probably familiar with in their own martial arts studies. If the opponent gets behind 
you (for instance, your round kick missed and the opponent steps in) you strike 
backwards with the elbow. You can aim into the opponent's rib cage, solar plexus, 
or aim it upwards under his chin. 

An unorthodox variation of this technique is to turn slightly more sideways than 
the normal boxing stance and strike with the lead elbow in this manner, as though 
he were striking an opponent behind him. The elbow is aimed right under the 
opponents chin. It is a very tricky maneuver, but has its inherent risks, as you are 
leaving your lead guard down. The shoulder to the chin only offers so much 
protection. 

SPINNING ELBOW STRIKE: Probably one of the most exciting techniques in 
Muay Thai, a real crowd pleaser! In Thailand, boxers who score a knockout with 
this technique receive a bonus with their fight purse. The footwork is similar to the 
throwing of many spin techniques, just make sure that you do not cross your legs 
when performing this, keep a good boxing stance. As you spin, you should be 
stepping into the opponent because again, you want to be at very close range when 



75 



executing an elbow strike. The elbow is thrown overhead, so that it chops down 
into the opponents face or onto their head, NOT sideways like a backfist! 

The most opportune time to use this elbow is either right after you have missed a 
round kick, or when you have blocked a high roundhouse kick from your 
opponent, you can spin in on him while his leg is still up. (actually, trap his leg and 
spin in at the same time for the best effect) 

There is another subtle way to use the spin elbow. A Thai boxer I used to watch 
was a master of this one. I believe the boxers name was Buelong (yes, from 
Thailand). He would slip his opponents straight punch and throw the spinning 
elbow in mid-slip so that his elbow would come straight in from his rear side. 

This is a hard variation to put into words, but as you slip the straight punch, you 
throw a spinning elbow from the same side that you slipped to. If your opponent 
throws a right cross, you slip to your left. As you slip, you roll your body so that 
your left elbow comes over the top of your back straight into his jaw. Your feet 
rotate, but you do not need to step. Try this technique SLOWLY with, a partner to 
see how it works. I guarantee that you will like this one. 



76 



Return Elbow Strikes 



It is actually a series of strikes, each one is the counterpart for one of the basic 
elbow strikes we have already discussed. These strikes are the RETURN ELBOW 
STRIKES. 

In each case, after you have thrown a basic elbow strike, most people/boxers 
simply return to their basic position, or follow with another basic strike. In our 
gym, we have a "philosophy" that after you have thrown the elbow in one 
direction, hit with the elbow again as you bring it back to basic guard position. 
After all, you have to bring your arm back anyway, so why waste an opportunity? 

The basic elbow strikes in Muay Thai are the HORIZONTAL, 
DIAGONAL/VERTICAL, UPPERCUT, and AXE elbow strikes. Only the AXE 
ELBOW has not return strike, as it IS a return strike (see below). 

Simply strike with the flush part of your elbow as you bring it back into position. 
Remember, you have to follow through on the strike. Example: The 
HORIZONTAL ELBOW STRIKE. When you bring the elbow back, you should 
bring it back as though you are trying to throw a wide sweeping elbow to hit 
someone behind you. Very similar to slapping someone with a lot of follow 
through, or even throwing a frisbee. Make sure your entire body pivots with the 
strike, just as the other basic strikes. 

The elbows strikes that have return strikes are the HORIZONTAL ELBOW, the 
DIAGONAL/VERTICAL ELBOW, and the UPPERCUT ELBOW. In the case of 
the DIAGONAL ELBOW, you can use the BACKWARDS ELBOW STRIKE as 
the return strike, or you can bring the elbow back overhead to strike downwards 
between your opponents guard as you bring the arm back to its basic position. 

With the UPPERCUT ELBOW, merely bring it back to position using the AXE 
ELBOW STRIKE. 

By practicing a return strike with each of your basic elbows, you can make sure 
that you don't miss an opportunity to strike your opponent. 



77 



Targets for the Elbow Strikes 



Most elbows are aimed at your opponent's head, of course. Specifically, you 
should target the opponent's scalp, forehead, and eyebrows area. The reason is this. 
These areas of the skull are protected by a thin layer of skin and muscle over solid 
bone. An elbow hitting on this surface will break or cut the skin open. As we all 
are aware, scalp/head wounds bleed extremely badly. The idea is to cut your 
opponent so that the blood flows into his or her eyes, blinding them. If they can't 
see, they can't fight. 

Another target of course is the jaw. Obviously, the intent is a KO. When using 
elbow strikes, use your basic strike (horizontal, diagonal, or uppercut) to make you 
opponent bleed, bring the return elbow strike with intent to knock them out. 

In the case of the UPPERCUT elbow and BACKWARDS elbow strikes, you 
should aim for just under your opponents jaw. 

The SPINNING ELBOW STRIKE should be aimed right at the forehead area. 

Another variation is to use the AXE ELBOW while clinched with your opponent to 
strike his or her hipbone. This is obviously very painful for the opponent. 

The elbow strikes can also be used to strike the opponents chest to knock the wind 
out of them. 

Though it is considered "dirty pool", when you scoop catch an opponents round 
kick, you can then SPIKE the elbow into their leg. 

As a final note, those of us with boxing experience know that you can use the 
elbows to block rather than your arms and hands. 



78 



KHAO 11 Cherng 



K1IMPAN FUNG UOK 



Straight knees 



The boxer bends the right knee 
obliquely to the left side then twists to 
throw it to the opponent's abdomen or 
chest. This trick is used for attack, 
defense or escape. 
To protect twist the body while 
pressing the left elbow down to guard 
the rib. 

To counter: throw the right foot to 
the opponent. 

If the boxer is a left handed fighter, 
reverse the description from Right to 
left. 




Hanuman Thayarn (The flying knee) 



❖ 



❖ 



The flying knee, known in Thai as 'Hanuman Thayarn', is one of the most 
extreme techniques in the Muay Thai arsenal. It is similar to the straight knee 
but is performed in a forward leaping motion during which both feet are clearly 
lifted off the ground. The momentum of the leaping body is placed behind the 
knee, making it very powerful when striking the opponent. Used at the right 
moment, the flying knee can be a decisive weapon in a fight. 
The only difference between the straight knee and the flying knee is the leap 
forward. In the straight flying knee, power is derived from a leap upward. This 
move is easily performed in close range by jumping straight upward. The 
impact force of this move, however, is much less than that of the leaping 
forward flying knee. 



79 



❖ The most effective flying knee employs the rear leg rather than the knee of the 
front leg as using the rear leg enables the boxer to generate more power. It is 
best used when the opponent is off guard, in a tight spot, or pinned in a corner. 
For optimum results, the flying knee should be used when you are at least one 
step away from your opponent. This allows enough room for you to leap and 
perform the movement. If there are at least two or three steps between you and 
the other boxer, the flying knee can be broken up into two stages: the run and 
the leap. Target areas for the flying knee are the lower abdomen, the stomach, 
the solar plexus, the chin, and the face. A skillful boxer can even use the flying 
knee to counter his opponent's attack. 

Directions for the flying knee From the right triangular stance the trainee 
should run a few steps, provided there is enough room, and leap quickly forwards 
towards the opponent. The left leg should be in front and the right leg in the rear, 
and similarly with the fists. Push off the right foot and leap forward and upward. 
While in flight, bend the right knee perpendicular to the body with the left leg 
pointing straight down. Both arms should tightly protect the chin, face, and 
stomach. The chin should be tucked closely to the chest and shoulders. Throughout 
the move, the right knee must be held taut and perpendicular to the body at all 
times. 

Directions for the flying knee 2] This move can be practiced on a sandbag. 
Trainees should practice by leaping towards the sandbag. Halfway to the sandbag, 
they should raise their right knees perpendicular to their bodies before impacting 
the target. Bear in mind at all times that the target is the chin or the chest of your 
opponent so your leap must be quite high off the ground. To increase the impact 
force of the target, the body can be twisted slightly at impact to give added 
momentum. When using the flying knee, the elbow should be kept at a right angle 
to the body. It can be used both as an added offensive weapon and as a defensive 
shield. 

Directions for the flying knee Once the flying knee is mastered, it can be 
adapted with other movements and become more advanced. Following are some 
examples: 

1 . Kick first and follow up with the flying knee. 

2. Avoid the opponent's kick and retaliate with the flying knee. 

3. Step on the opponent's thigh and deliver the flying knee. 

4. Push the opponent's arms upwards and follow up with the flying knee. 

5. Push the opponent's arms downwards and follow up with the flying knee. 



80 



Defend against the flying knee 

1 . Turn away perpendicular from the oncoming flying knee. 

2. Thrust kick your opponent before the impact of the flying knee. 

3. Turn to the right or the left and kick your opponent. 

4. As the opponent leaps towards you deliver a straight punch. 



YDK HANC 



Swinging-knees 



The boxer turns the body to the right and 
throws the left knee in the action of the 
swinging-knee-kick to the opponent's rib. This 
trick is used for defense when the opponent 
attacks close to the body. 
To protect sway the body to the right and pull 
down to guard the ribs, 

To counter: throw the left knee to the right rib 
of the opponent or to the abdomen. 
If the boxer is a left handed fighter, reverse the 
descriptions from right to left. 




❖ The front roundhouse knee kick or f Yok Nang f is a powerful move during 
which a boxer channels the momentum of his spinning body into his knee 
creating a devastating impact when performed correctly and accurately. When 
using the right knee, the basic motion is in a left-inwardly direction. The 
opposite direction applies when using the left knee. The front roundhouse knee 
kick normally targets the opponent's rib cage. 

❖ There are two variants of this kick, differentiated by the movement involved. 
First, there is the diagonal knee. It is characterized by a diagonal movement of 
the knee from the standing position to the point of impact. When using the left 
knee the target will be hit on the right side and vice versa for the right knee. 
Second, there is the horizontal knee. In this movement, the knee, calf, and foot 
should be parallel to the floor. As with the diagonal knee, the left knee should 
impact the target on the right side and vice versa for the right knee. 



81 



Note The difference between the basic roundhouse knee kick and the front 
roundhouse knee kick lies in where you want the knee to impact your opponent. 
For the roundhouse knee kick, the impact area is the upper thigh and the lower 
torso of the opponent. The target area is higher, at the chest of the opponent, for the 
front roundhouse knee kick. To reach this target, boxers must sway their bodies to 
the left (if using the right knee) while bending backward slightly. This will lift the 
knee, allowing it to hit the target much higher. 

Training To train this technique, trainees should stand about one step away from 
the sandbag or at a distance where the trainee feels comfortable and able to attack 
with the knee. 

• Position 1 Move the left leg forward one step at an angle of 45 degrees. 

• Position 2 To train for the diagonal knee, use the right foot to push the right 
leg upwards. Bend the right knee and turn quickly. Using the body's 
momentum, the knee will hit the sandbag at an angle forcefully. The quicker 
the body turns, the more powerful the impact. The same applies for the 
horizontal knee except that the knee, calf, and leg should be parallel to the 
floor and the impact on the sandbag should be directly from the side. 
Naturally, the direction is reversed for knee kicks using the left knee. 
Trainees should practice both sides. 

Defend against the front roundhouse knee kick 

1. Punch 

2. Sway out of reach and return with a roundhouse knee kick. 

3. Move back and return with a roundhouse knee kick. 

4. Move to the side and return with a roundhouse knee kick. 

5. Block and then push the opponent to the side and return with a roundhouse 
knee kick. 

6. Block with the knee. 

7. Hold, pull and roundhouse knee kick. 

8. Do the roundhouse knee kick before or when the opponent is attempting to 
do the same. 



82 



Kao Koo: 2 knees: the flying knees Kick 



The boxer steps the right foot to the left foot, bends the knees and throws them to the opponent's 
chin by jumping up and kneeing then strikes the both of elbows to the opponent's face. This trick is 
used for attack or counter-move backward. 

To protect: jumps back and holds up the left arm up to defend the elbow from the high while 
holding down the right arm to defend the knee from the low. 

To counter: kicks the opponent's leg (while jumping up) by the right foot then throws the right 
elbow to the opponent's face. 



NGDO LAI 10DKKAF 



Alternately knees 



The boxer throws the diagonal left knee to the 
opponent's left rib, then throws the straight right 
knee to the opponent's abdomen or chest rib and 
the left knee to the abdomen or the chest of the 
opponent. Use this trick to attack when the 
opponent loses his balance. 
To protect: sway the body and press the right 
elbow down to cover the right rib then twist the 
body to the right and press the left elbow down 
to cover the left rib. 
To counter: throw the left foot to the 
opponent's abdomen to make the opponent lose 
is balance then use the other tricks. 




83 



PRANG SATTROO 



This trick is used for attack when the 
opponent loses his balance or to defend 
the close at tack, by throwing the elbow 
to throw the knee to the chin or the chest 
of the opponent. 

To protect hold the both hands to cover 
the face and the chest by bending the 
elbow joint with the tip of the fists pointed 
to the head (as the plumb lines). 
To counter: twist the body to the left or 
the right and throw the Elbow to the 
opponent's rib. 




Throws the knees and 
the elbows 



If the boxer throws the swinging 
left knee which is by the right side 
to the right elbow and strikes it to 
the left jaws of the opponent. This 
trick is used for defense, or 
countermove or escape. 
To protect: press down the right 
elbow to cover the right rib from 
the opponent's left knee, and wipe 
the right elbow of the opponent to 
the back by throwing the left arm. 
To counter: throw the left foot to 
the opponent's abdomen. 
If the boxer is a left handed 
fighter, reverse the descriptions 
from right to left. 




84 



YUD YDTHA 




Throws the knees and the elbows at the same time 



The boxer throws the swinging-knee to the opponent's right rib, at the same time pushes up the left 
elbow to the chin and strikes the right of the opponent. This trick is used for attack, defense, or 
escape. 

To protect: bend the body and press the right elbow down to the right rib in order to prevent the 
opponent's left knee and hold the left hand up which cover the opponent's right elbow. 
To counter: throw the left foot which to the opponent's abdomen in order to make him lose his 
balance, then use the other tricks. 



85 



Use both hands to hold around the opponent's neck, 
bend the Opponents head down to the front then bend 
both legs to in order to bend the knees to the opponent 
chin or chest. 

To protect: put both elbows close together to the front 
then try to strike the elbows to the opponent's thighs 
strongly. 

To counter: insert the arm in circle and hold the head 
up, then counter by kneeing or pushing the crossed 
knee to the abdomen. Another trick is pushing the hand 
to the opponent's chin and thrusting a power full hand 
at the same time as the opponent throws the knee. The 
opponent may be fall back down. 



POQPA SATAN 



The upper-knees 



The upper knees are used for the attack 
that's close to the opponent's body. Can use 
both of the knees such as pushing the right 
knee up to the opponent's chest in order to 
make a gap and then throwing the left knee 
to the opponent's abdomen while holding 
tightly the opponent's neck with both 
hands. 

To protect use the hands to guard the 
chest and abdomen 

To counter: try to lean back and throw the 
straight punch to the opponent's chin. 





Throws the knee and the punch at the same time 



The boxer moved the right knee with the foot bent to the back for wards to the left side a little, then 
threw it to the opponent's left rib and threw the right punch to the opponent's chin at the same time. 
Twisted the body to the left and threw the powerful knee and punch followed to the target. Use for 
defense or countermove. 

To protect wipe the opponent's fist with the left arm and jump back. 

To counter: kick the opponent's left leg with the right foot to put off his balance then uses another 
trick. If the boxer is a left handed fighter, reverse the descriptions from right to left. 



87 



Knee-touch 



This knee trick is used for fighting at close 
quarters by holding round the opponent's neck 
with both hands. Bend the head down and throw 
the swinging knees to the opponent's ribs. Use 
both knees to strike both ribs at the sometime. 
To protect: jumps back far away from the 
opponent then strikes at the opponent's 
abdomen with the foot 
To counter: does the same as to counter in 
HAK KOR CHANG ERAWAN. 
The abstract: The using of all tricks (Cherng), try 
to use with as much speed, as powerfulness, 
and have a quick eye in order to get the best 
results if lacking some of them it would be 
useless. 




88 



THAO 15 Cherng 



PERU TAWAN 



The boxer throws the straight 
left kick to the opponent's chin; 
the opponent loses his step 
throw the right fist to his face 
immediately. This trick is used for 
attack defense and escape. 
To protect pushes the punch on 
the foot or throws the right kick 
to the opponent's left calf. 
To counter: wipes up the 
opponents foot by the right arm 
then throws the left kick to the 
opponent's rib. If the boxer is a 
left handed fighter, reverse the 
descriptions from right to left. 




LUANG DAN HERA 




Throws a punch and the knee at the same time 



The boxer throws the right swinging punch to left jaw and at the same time strikes the knee to 
the right rib of the opponent. This trick, is used the same as KON PAJON CHANG SAN 
To protect: wipes the opponent's punch by the left arm and sways to the right side then covers 
the right rib with the right elbow. 
To counter: use the knee as PAJON CHANG SAN 



89 



s the straight tiptoes 



The boxer throws the right foot to 

pass the fists and hits the opponent's 

chin, while that foot steps down bends 

it and throws it to the opponent's 

Adam's apple or to the chest in order 

to make him lost his balance. 

To protect jumps back and hold on 

the left arm guard to protect the chin. 

To counter: throws the right kick to 

the opponent's calf and then 

Uses another trick. 

If the boxer is a left handed fighter, 

reverse the descriptions from right to 

left. 




❖ The thrust kick is a fundamental Muay Thai technique. It is featured 
prominently in early Muay Thai manuals such as that written in the era of 
King Rama III as well as that followed by the Korat Muay Thai camp. It is 
the longest weapon available in Muay Thai, and is used by all Thai boxers 
for its violence and versatility. It is effectively used to greet, tease, provoke, 
attack, and defend against one's opponent. 

❖ There are three basic variants of the thrust kick: the basic thrust kick, the 
side thrust kick, and the snap thrust kick. The snap thrust kick is known in 
Thai as the "Yotha Sin Thop," which means "Horse Warrior." This 
technique is named after the rapid and violent kick of a horse. If one is 
attacked with this kick, one would certainly be at risk of being injured as if 
being kicked by a horse. 

❖ The snap thrust kick can be thrust to the front, left- or right-hand side. 
Power is transferred to either the tiptoe, the sole, or the instep of the foot, 
just like in the basic thrust kick. The two kicks are differentiated in terms of 
their direction. Whereas the basic thrust kick is thrown in a horizontal line, 
the snap thrust kick travels in a diagonal line by a throwing of the leg and a 
simultaneous twisting of the hips. The foot is thrust forward and upward to 
the chin, breast, or pit of the stomach. It is sharper, more violent, and gets 
more distance than other methods of attack. 



90 



Practice While practicing the snap thrust kick, trainees must be on guard while 
casting their leg towards the target. In doing so, the trainee must twist his hips 
to transfer power to the front. Trainees should practice this skill with both legs. 

Defending One should employ simple defense techniques against the snap 
thrust kick while being very careful since the kick can be made in a very abrupt 
offensive manner. Following is a list of some general defensive techniques: 



1. 


Elude (Avoid) 


2. 


Retreat (Retreat and attack) 


3. 


Sidestep (Sidestep and attack) 


4. 


Wiping off the attack 


5. 


Guard 


6. 


Grapple 


7. 


Causing the opponent to fall 


8. 


Start attacking and offending the opponent 



Examples of such offensive counters to the snap thrust kick 

1 . Using the fist to counter a front straight kick 

o Use the hand to wipe off the kick and cast a straight punch to the 
stomach 

o Use the knee to defend against the kick and throw a counter punch 
o Use the hand to defend against the attack and then punch 

2. Using a round kick to counter a thrust kick 
o Grapple, push and kick 

o Wipe off the attack and throw a kick to the lower part of the body 

3. Applying the knee to counter the attack 
o Sidestep and throw a knee strike 

o Wipe off and then use the knee 

o Use the hand, arm, or body to counter the attack and then use the knee 
o Grapple, then push or knee within the clinch 



Throws the tiptoes and the 
kick 



The boxer throws the tip of the foot to 
the opponent's navel and then jumping 
up to throw the right kick to the 
opponent's chin. The trick is used for 
attack, defense or escape. 
To protect: twist the body side on to the 
opponent by holding up the heel and the 
tip of the foot touching to the floor then 
twist the rest to the right side and hold 
on to the left elbow guard to proven the 
kick. 

To counter: wipe the opponent's heel up 
with the left punch and use the other 
tricks. 

If the boxer is a left handed fighter, 
reverse the descriptions from right to 
left. 




92 



MAKOP LEU KB A 




Swing-back kicks 



The boxer steps the left foot to the front and sways the back foot to the right then throws the 
swing kick to the opponent's jaws or the ribs. The boxer can do the same actions if the opponent's 
careless. This is trick used for defense. 

To protect sways the body and bends down the right elbow to wipe the opponent's foot to the right 
by pushing out the right punch. 

To counter: throws the left foot to the opponent's abdomen and uses other tricks. 
If the boxer is left handed fighter, reverse the description From right to left. 



93 



KIATGNA LEH HANG 




Kicks in three actions to the three targets: leg, Chin, neck 



The boxer steps the right foot, turn the shin to the left side the weight on the right leg then twist 
the body forwards and throws the strong kick to the opponent's left leg. Lets the foot pass to the left 
side, and throws it to the opponent's chin and pulls it in, then throws to the Adam's apple or the eye 
sockets of the opponent. This trick is used for attack. 
To protect: jumps back from the opponent. 

To counter : pounces on the opponent' foot and jerks it, then uses another trick such as throwing 
the punch or a kick. 

If the boxer is a left handed fighter, reverse the description from Right to left. This trick, used one 
foot to kick in three action. 



94 



KWAHC LEH PONG 



Jumps to throw a kick 



The boxer used the right foot to 
make a strong kick, then used the left 
foot to throw a straight kick to the chin 
or to open the opponent's guard. Then 
jumps to throw the right kick to the 
opponent's chin or jaws. This trick is 
used for attack, defense or escape. 
To protect: jumps back from the 
distance of the kick, 
To counter: throws the right foot to 
the left calf of the opponent then 
follows by another trick. 
If the boxer is a left handed fighter, 
reverse the descriptions from Right to 
left. 




95 



KARONS PAYUHAB ATH 



Throws the straight kick and 
a swing kick 



The boxer throws the left foot to the 
opponent's Adam's apple or presses to the 
neck which puts the opponent off his 
balance. Then throws the right swing back 
kick to the opponent' s rib. This trick is 
used for attack, defense counter move or 
escape. 

To protect: turns the head to the back or 
bends the body back and wipes the 
opponent's left foot by the right arm then 
swaying to the left side and covers the left 
rib with the left hand. 
To counter: throws the straight left 
punch to the chin or kicks to the 
opponent's left leg to put the opponent off 
balance. 

If the boxer is a left handed fighter, 
reverse descriptions from right to left. 




96 



Swing-back kick 



The boxer steps forward, the weight 
on the left leg then turns round and 
kicks back wards with the right heel to 
the opponent's jaws or the right rib. If 
the opponent can catch the right foot, 
stand with the left leg and throw the 
right elbow to the opponent's chin. 
This trick is used for defense or if the 
opponent's careless. 
To protect: wipe the opponent's right 
foot to the right side with the 
Right arm. 

To counter: catches the opponent's 
right foot and jerks forwards. 




GIHHAREE LEN NAM 



Throws up the heel 



This trick is used when the opponent moves 
into the armpit, if he moves to the left armpit 
bend body to the left and press the opponent's 
head down then bend up the opponent's 
abdomen. 

To protect hold the right arm guard over the 
face. 

To counter: use the elbow trick in KWANG 
SABAT NA (shakes the elbows) 
If the opponent moves into the right armpit, 
reverse the descriptions from right to left. 



97 



Throws the shin 



This trick is the same as the foot trick 
in LONG DAN PRATOO (swing-kicks) 
but changes from throwing the back foot 
into throwing the shin. This trick is used 
when the opponent wake in closely to 
the distance of the shin. 
To protect push out the left arm to the 
opponent's right shin. 
To counter: throw the left foot to the 
opponent's abdomen. 
If the boxer is a left handed fighter 
reverse the descriptions from Right to 
left. 




The roundhouse thrust kick is a fundamental Muay Thai weapon. It derives its 
power from the momentum gained by twisting the entire body. It uses any part 
of the leg, from the upper thigh to the foot, as the striking weapon. The central 
pivoting point the hip, around which the leg and foot is swung towards their 
ultimate target, which could be the ears, jaw, shoulders, chest, rib cage, 
abdomen, hips, or legs of the opponent. 

The basic stance for the roundhouse thrust kick is with the legs slightly apart, 
one leg in front of the other. If one is right-handed, then the right leg should be 
behind the left leg, and functions as the anchor leg. The situation is opposite if 
one is left-handed. If the roundhouse thrust kick is delivered using the anchor 
leg, it is a very powerful weapon. The kick begins with the anchor leg being 
moved around behind the front leg. This twisting creates tension that adds to 
the power of the kick once the anchor leg is released and spun around the hip 
towards the opponent. 

The front leg can also be used to deliver the roundhouse thrust kick. It is used 
to disturb one's opponent, teasing him and reducing the momentum of his 
attack. For this kick, the front leg is used to kick the opponent by the twisting 
of the front of the foot onto the target. Note that in this action the body is not 
turned as this will expose the boxer's side, inviting an attack from the 
opponent. 



98 



❖ Because the roundhouse thrust kick relies on the momentum and power created 
by the quick twist of the body, it is easy for boxers to lose their balance while 
attempting to deliver the kick. A common way to compensate for this is for a 
boxer to drop his arm on the kicking side backward in order to stay balanced. 
This, however, leaves the body unprotected and open to a counter attack for in 
addition to the arm being in the rear it will also take more time for the boxer to 
bring it forward again. To avoid these difficulties, the roundhouse thrust kick 
should be practiced with both fists held in front to protect the face at all times. 
You will also be in good position to advance and attack further with your fists 
should the opportunity present itself. 

Practice To train the roundhouse thrust kick on the sand bag, boxers should stand 
squarely in front of the sand bag and concentrate on the task at hand. If right 
handed, the boxer should part his legs with the left foot set slightly diagonally to 
the front and left. Next, turn the waist, hip and the right or anchor leg clockwise. 
Then, release the leg, turning the waist and hip at the same time. This will create a 
powerful roundhouse kick that uses the body's momentum to its fullest potential, 
allowing the back of the foot or the shin to hit the target with tremendous force. 
During this action, the left leg has become the main axis of the kick. Standing on 
the ball of the left foot will improve your balance and also the efficiency of the 
kick. For left handed boxers, the same procedures are to be followed but in the 
opposite direction. Practice of this technique is essential as it is a very important 
Muay Thai weapon. Boxers should practice using both legs regardless of whether 
they are right or left handed. 

Defending 

1 . Ward off the kick by using the hands, arms, or elbows. 

2. Receive the kick with an elbow or arm. 

3. Receive the kick with the knee. 

4. Receive the kick by protecting oneself and holding the opponent. 

5. Sway from the reach of the kick. 



99 



Retaliation against roundhouse thrust kicks 

1 . Retaliate by using the front fist. 

2. Retaliate by using the rear fist. 

3. Retaliate against a high kick with a low kick. 

4. Retaliate against a body kick with a body kick. 

5. Retaliate against a high kick with a body kick. 

6. Retaliate against a body kick with a low kick. 

7. Retaliate with a direct thrust kick. 

8. Sway away from the kick and then retaliate with a knee strike. 

9. Move away and then attack with a knee strike. 

10. Sway to the side and then return with a knee strike. 
1 1 .Ward off the kick and retaliate with the knee. 

12. Protect with shins, elbows, and arms, and retaliate with the knee. 

13. Hold, push, and retaliate with the knee. 

14. Retaliate with a reverse elbow. 

15. Ward off the kick with the arm and retaliate with the elbow. 

16. Protect, hold, and retaliate with the elbow. 

17. Protect, hold, push, and retaliate with the elbow. 

18. Protect, hold, pull inward and retaliate with the elbow. 

19. Retaliate with the Tad Mara' (by ducking away from the kick, and then after 
the kick passes over your head raising your head and capturing your 
opponent's leg between your head and shoulder. Then you can throw your 
opponent to the canvass). 



100 



Muay Thai roundkick mechanics 



The Muay Thai roundhouse kick is swung around "dead-legged" style. In other 
words, imagine that your leg is a baseball bat. That means that the knee does not 
exist. Now, to get that leg to swing around and through a target, you have to use 
your hip to swing it around. 

Let's break it down. Pretend that your leg is in a cast from the ankle to just below 
your hip. Your knee is immobile. You have to swing the kick around like a 
baseball bat to strike through your target. 

First, step at an angle. You lean in the way that you are stepping, which is 
coincidentally the opposite direction from your kicking leg. (that is an important 
item to note, I'm coming back to it in a moment) 

As you step, you should already partially rotate your support foot, and you should 
also be up on the ball of your foot. Do not step flat-footed. 

Now that you have taken that step and the kick is beginning to launch (remember, 
your leg is immobilized and you have to swing it with your hip) you must pivot on 
your support foot, LEANING AWAY from your kicking leg throughout the entire 
motion! 

The heel of your pivot foot should have turned all the way towards the target 
during the kick. Or, you can think of it as turning your knee completely away from 
the target. 

You should keep your leg semi- stiff throughout the swing of the kick, tensing it up 
at impact. 

You should point the toes of your kicking foot during the kick. This tightens up the 
muscles and tendons in the foot and ankle, which will prevent injury if you catch 
your target wrong, such as when you misjudge your distance when you kick and 
catch your target with your toes. 

Now, lets go back to that "lean away" item again. By leaning away from the 
kicking leg, you are actually transferring your full upper body weight into the kick. 
How? Well, I am not a physicist, but this has to do with that law regarding for 
every action there is an equal but opposite reaction. 

But, rather than discuss physics, just think of it like this. Have you ever swung a 
baseball bat? Or a golf club? In both cases, as you swing the club or bat, your 
upper body always swings around opposite of the club or bat. Leaned away from 
it! Baseball players do not hunch into their swing unless they are bunting. Rather, 
they lean back, or away from the bat and try to knock the sucker out of the park! 



101 



Lead Hand Positioning When Kicking 



Thai boxers do typically drop one of their hands when executing a roundhouse 
kick. The reason, as you surmised is for both leverage and added power. 

Though you were referring only to the lead side roundhouse kick, and the dropping 
of the lead hand, the same is true for the rear legged roundhouse kick. 

For one, roundhouse kicks from the lead leg are naturally weaker because they do 
not benefit anywhere near as much from the body's rotation during the kick. When 
the lead hand "drops" it does not actually just drop, but is swung. 

The swing is to: 

❖ generate additional power while pivoting and 

❖ help the boxer maintain his/her balance. 

A third and not well known reason (unless you study Muay Thai) is that the swing 
arm can be used to interfere with your opponent. You are sticking it in his face and 
brushing either his punches or guard aside as you kick. 

Further, the arm may drop, but the shoulder does NOT! When a Thai boxer kicks, 
he is leaning away from the kicking leg. Doing this adds more of the body's weight 
to the force of the kick AND gets the boxers head OUT OF THE WAY of a 
counterstrike. 

Also, ONLY ONE arm drops! The other should come up in front of the face in a 
high guard position that places the elbow near jaw level and the hand practically 
above the head. This creates a more solid barrier. The shoulder of the arm that is 
dropped protects the jaw on the other side. 

The above hold true for roundhouse kicking techniques from both sides. 



Head Kick Defense 

There are SO many things you could do as defense, I'll name some of them... 
EVASION: 

1 . Skip back out of the kicks way. 

2. Lean backwards so that the kick passes just over your head. 

3. Duck (be careful with this one!) 
BLOCK: 

The "three point defense" is best. With shoulders high, keep both arms in tight to 
your body. The arm on the side that's getting kicked should be glued tight to your 

102 



body, the opposite arm slaps down on the incoming kick (slap down near the 
knee). The kick will connect on three points at the same time (if done correctly): 
upper arm, forearm, and the arm that's slapping down. 

You should take a step AWAY from the kick as it comes in to help absorb the blow. 
When I say step away, I don't mean step back. If you're getting kicked on your left, 
you take a step to your right. You'd be amazed at how much power you can take 
off of a kick by stepping sideways. 

Or, instead of stepping, raise your leg high, with the knee up in your chest, as 
though you intend to use the leg shield. This may sound like a wasted motion, but 
it serves two purposes. For one, by being on one leg, it allows your upper body to 
absorb the kick more freely then when you stand on both feet and rooted. Second, a 
good kicker can be rather deceptive, feinting high and kicking to the middle. 
Remember the downwards angled kicks that I've mentioned? Those kicks start 
high, but then go lower when the hip rolls over. 

It should go without saying that you want to be careful about lifting your leg for a 
high kick if you're worried about feints. A guy can fake a kick high to get you to 
raise that leg, then throw the "Submarine Kick". However, I will say that if the 
kick is truly coming at you high (head level), it would be EXTREMEL Y difficult to 
roll it over into a Submarine/Cut Kick. It is more likely to be rolled over into a 
mid-body kick. 

COUNTER ATTACKS: 

The most effective defenses are the counter attacks. 

1. Straight punch: Nothing stops a kick quicker than a hard, stiff punch coming 
down the pike. 

2. Push kick: The absolutely MOST EFFECTIVE kick defense. A properly placed 
Push Kick will dump your opponent right on his ass! 

3. Submarine/Cut Kick: This one requires some timing. As your opponent starts 
to kick, you step at an angle to kick his support leg out from under him. For 
instance, he is throwing a right kick (coming at you from your left). You step at an 
angle to your right and take your opponents support leg out from under him. 

4. Spinning Elbow: Hard to pull off, but what a finish!!! As the kick comes in, 
you step in with your block. You spin into your opponent with your block and 
throw the spinning elbow. For instance, your opponent kicks high on your left. 
You step into your opponent with your right foot and block at the same time. You 
then step and spin in with your left foot as you throw the left elbow. You want to 
bring the elbow in over top as opposed to horizontal, because your opponent's 
guard will be up and can block the horizontal elbow relatively easily (though it will 
definitely get his attention). 



103 



There are literally endless other defenses, combinations, counters, and variations 
beyond what I've listed. But, this should give you a start, and you can build on it 
from there. 



PLANS IHSEE 




Throws the foot and the punch at same time 



If the boxer uses the left foot the same as the foot tricks in MANOP LEN KHA (swing-back kicks) 
but includes throwing the right punch to the opponent's chin and throwing the left foot the right rib. 
This trick is used for attack, defense, counter move or escape. 

To protect: bends the body presses the right elbow to the opponent' s left foot, and wipes the left 
hand to the opponent's right punch. 

To counter: does the same as the foot-trick in MANOP LEN KHA 

If the boxer is a left handed fighter reverse the descriptions from Right to left. 



104 



Cross switch kicks 



This trick is used when putting the 
opponent off his balance by kicking and 
sleeping back wards. Throw the left and the 
right kick to the opponent's jaws again until 
the opponent falls down. If the boxer 
practices to get skillful in order to become 
an experienced kicker while doing this trick 
the tip of foot should be touching the 
ground. 

To protect hold on to both arms guards 
cover the jaws. 

To counter: put the opponent off balance 
by throwing the right foot or kicking. 




❖ The Thai name for the kick to the neck is 'Narai Bun Sien\ f Bun f means to cut, 
and f Sien f means the head. Together, it means to cut the neck. The kick to the 
neck is a forceful move that can be used at any possible opportunity. It 
involves striking the opponent's neck with the shin of the leg. The shin is 
comparable to a large sharp knife, and delivered properly to the neck of the 
opponent it is sure to deliver the knockout blow. However, it is not a move that 
is easily done, especially if your opponent is an experienced fighter. The kick 
to the neck is best used when your opponent is off guard or at close range, 
however, at close range the kick is quite difficult to perform. 



105 



❖ The kick to the neck is a long, powerful, and lethal weapon. It can, 
nevertheless, be defended against and countered easily. Here are some ways to 
do so: 

Defend against and counter 

1 . Thrust kick forward to stop the opponent's attacking momentum. 

2. Lower the head slightly and kick your opponent's anchor leg. 

3. Block with the arm and deliver a low kick to the anchor leg. 

4. Sway to the back causing the kick to miss the target. 

Note Narai Bun Sien is not a secret move for anyone in training camp. It should 
be practiced at all times from every possible position. The emphasis of the 
movement is to kick as high as possible. This can be achieved by jumping as well 
as from the standing position. It also serves as the foundation for many other kicks 
in the Muay Thai weapons chest, so practice it well. 



HflHC SALAB BATH 




This trick used is the same as the trick in PASHEE sabad YANG (cross switch kicks) but changes to 
throw one of the feet to the opponent's rib 

To protect: guard on the jaws with one arm while another guard's on the rib, 
To counter: does the same as the trick in PASHEE sabad YANG 



106 



Low-swi ng - kicks 



The boxer turns round and twists to throw the 

right swing-kick to the opponent's left calf to 

make him lose his balance or to hurt his instep. 

This trick is used for attack, defense and 

counter move or escape. 

To protect twist the left foot to the right. 

To counter: turn back and throw the elbow to 

the opponent's jaws by the right side. 

If the boxer is a left handed fighter, reverse the 

descriptions from right to left. 




The Low Roundhouse Kick of Muay Thai 

The low roundhouse kick of Muay Thai how to? 

1 - There are a number of varieties to this kick. I will discuss one of them in this 
book. 

2- Remember, with the Low Roundhouse kick of Muay Thai, the target area ranges 
from your opponents ankle up to his upper thigh, with one of the primary targets 
being peronal nerve (on the end of the thigh muscle, just about one finger width 
above the knee). 

3- 1 will try to break this up into a few steps, but remember, when the kick is 
actually executed, all the steps flow together into one motion. 

4- Remember, for those who have studied other kicking styles, the impact area is 
now the lower shinbone. That means you have to adjust your kicking range to 
reflect this! The is a small, but very important adjustment... 

When performing this kick, you must first be at the correct distance from your 
opponent. Unlike straight kicks and snap kicks the body momentum is generated 
by stepping sideways at an angle, rather than towards your opponent (or target). 
The correct distance for this kick is when your opponent is JUST BEYOND 
punching range. During practice, extend your lead hand to your opponent or target. 
You should be able to touch the opponent or target by simply leaning forward a 
little bit. 



107 



N°1-STEP AND LEAN: Step sideways at a 45 degree angle to the intended target. 
As you step, your stepping foot should start to rotate. Make sure you are stepping 
on your tippy toes, not on a flat foot. As you step, you should lean your body in the 
direction that you step. This helps get your body momentum going, which is a key 
ingredient to this kick. 

N°2-ROTATE (and lean): Your entire body most rotate on the ball of your foot. 
Your leg should be straight (or very close to straight) during the entire kick. As 
you rotate and kick, your body should stay leaned away from the kicking leg. This 
acts as a counterbalance of sorts, and gets the weight of your upper body behind 
the kick. 

N°3-IMPACT: When the leg strikes the intended target, it should strike with the 
lower portion of the shinbone and/or the very upper part of the instep. The 
momentum of the kick should follow through the target. The kick does not stop at 
impact! The follow through is probably the most important facet of this kick. 
Think of your leg as a baseball bat. Swing it all the way through the target, 
attempting to break through everything in it's path. 

The above instructions are very simplified, and without the benefit of photo's or 
demonstration, may not make complete sense. I have left out of the steps the 
instructions on how to hold your guard as you kick as that has been addressed in 
another part of this book. I will finish this up with some bullet points. 

❖ Again, do not kick if you are standing too far away from the opponent. This 
forces you to step INTO the opponent when covering the distance, and gets 
your body's momentum traveling in the wrong direction 

❖ When you lean away from the kick, lean far enough away so that your head 
is out of reach of your opponents punches. ESPECIALLY during low kicks, 
as you have to stand closer to your opponent while executing them. 

❖ Swing your leg in a "dead legged" style using your hip. Very similar to 
kicking a soccer ball or football. DO NOT "SNAP" THE LEG! Follow all the 
way through the intended target. If you were to miss, the kick would literally 
spin you around! 

❖ When the kick impacts with the target, the heel of your support foot should 
be pointing at your target. Or, you can think of it as having your knee facing 
completely away from the target. 

❖ Remember to keep the foot extended! Many people forget to do this because 
they are kicking with the shin and therefore forget to pay mind to what they 
do with their foot. Kicking with a "lazy ankle" leads to injuries. 

❖ The impact with the intended target (when the kick is thrown correctly) 
creates a "rebound" effect. Learn to use this to get yourself back into your 
basic stance rather than "retracting" your leg. 



108 



♦♦♦ The most common target is the outside of your opponents lead leg on the 
thigh. However, do not forget that the rest of the leg, both inside and out is a 
legal target. 

❖ The support leg bends when kicking low. The lower your kick, the lower 
you bend your support leg. Remember to still stay on your tippy toes. 

When kicking (or performing any Muay Thai technique) it is important to 
remember that the feet, hips and shoulders all move as ONE UNIT! There should 
never be any twist to your body. If the feet rotate to the left, your hips and 
shoulders rotate to the left with them. By moving the body as one unit, the boxer is 
able to get his or her full weight into his or her techniques. 

Using the Muay Thai Low Roundhouse Kick 

To start off, the kick is designed to destroy your opponent's base. Thai boxers 
often refer to kicking their opponent's legs as "chopping down the tree". The low 
kicks are often used most during the beginning of the match to deaden the 
opponent's leg. After the leg has been beaten on a bit to slow them down, the kicks 
start being aimed at the midsection. This is because the legs are going to now be 
slower to lift to block the incoming kick, and also to beat on your opponent's ribs 
and breadbasket to knock the wind out of him. Towards the later stages of the 
fight, when your opponent is tired, the kicks go upstairs to the neck and jaw for the 
knockout! 

With all leg kicks, the hand that is on the same side as the kicking leg should be 
extended into your opponents face! This blocks his/her line of sight, and also puts a 
barrier between you two, making counterattacks harder to execute! 

As mentioned, there are many variations to leg kicks. The most common leg kick 
is a roundhouse kick to the outside of the thigh of your opponent's lead leg. When 
this kick is executed, it commonly is thrown so that the kick is traveling on a 
horizontal plane with the ground. 

One slight variation to this kick is changing the angle of your initial step so that 
instead of kicking the outside of the thigh, you kick directly across the front of the 
thigh. To do this, step more sideways than at an angle as you kick. 

If you opponent is standing with the same side lead stance as you (both of you in 
left side leads, for example) You can throw a lead-legged roundhouse kick to the 
inside of their lead ankle or calf. No step is required, just lean back and rotate in 
place. The kick should travel upwards as though you are kicking a ball, not 
sideways. This kick is commonly used with the inside of the instep as the striking 
surface. This kick is amazingly painful to your opponent as the inside of the ankle 
and calf is not very protected by the body's muscle structure. You do not have to 
kick very hard to break your opponents stance, making it easy to follow with a few 
quick straight punches down the pike! 



109 



One of our gym's favorite "tricks" is what we refer to as the "submarine kick", and 
other gyms refer to as a "cut kick". The proper way to block a low roundhouse kick 
is to raise you leg and block with the knee/shin. The idea is to sucker your 
opponent into raising the leg block, then bringing the kick underneath the raised 
leg to strike the support leg. To set this up, you can throw 1 or 2 roundkicks to the 
outside or your opponent's thigh so that they will automatically raise the leg to 
defend when they see you bringing the next kick. Step more deeply and get down 
low so that your kicking leg passes under their block (or strikes near their blocking 
foot and pushes through) to their support leg. You should try to use your leg to 
"scoop" them off of their feet. You can also use your swing arm to help them by 
pushing them across your kicking leg. If done correctly, your opponent will 
perform a lovely cartwheel in the air, landing on their head. 

One final technique that I will mention in this book is kicking at the outside of 
your opponent's knee in a downward, chopping motion. The idea is to buckle their 
knee so that their stance is broken, giving you the opportunity to counter while 
they regain their feet. To perform the downward motion, when the kick reaches its 
apex, you rotate your hip all the way over so that your kick is now aiming back at 
the floor, and you "chop" it through. This kick has considerable power with 
practice. (This is also an excellent kicking angle to use when kicking at an 
opponents head. The added power of rolling the hip over and kicking back into the 
floor can often break through an opponents strong guard to land on their neck or 
jaw, producing a knockout). 

Setting Up the Low Roundhouse Kick 

As I'm sure everyone can imagine, with their being so many variations on the Low 
Roundhouse Kick of Muay Thai, there are also several variations when it comes to 
setting the kick up. I'll attempt to discuss some of them. Ultimately, once you learn 
the kick proficiently, you will find your own way. View these as guidelines, or 
basics... 

Let's start with the Low Roundhouse Kick to the outside of your opponents lead 
leg. For our purposes, both fighters will be considered to be in left-side lead. You 
wish to kick with your right leg to the outside thigh of your opponents left leg. 

My preferred method to set up a kick to the leg is to start with a punching 
combination first. By getting your hand in your opponents face, you are distracting 
his attention upstairs and away from your intended target. The combination: JAB- 
CROSS-REAR ROUNDHOUSE KICK is not only one of the most basic combo's, 
but arguably the most effective. (This is true of almost every punching/kicking art) 

Referring to the above combo, I personally teach two approaches to it: continuous 
flow and broken rhythm. 

CONTINUOUS FLOW: in this version of the combo, each strike follows a steady 
flow, striking one after the other. To do this, the JAB is thrown as a real punch, but 



110 



the CROSS is only thrust into your opponents face and left there to block his line 
of sight. The KICK then comes right behind the "CROSS" into the leg. The reason 
for throwing a fake cross is so that you CAN throw the kick in the same rhythm. If 
you throw a real cross, you are forced to plant you feet for a split second, 
preventing you from flowing into a kick. Therefore, only thrust the hand forward 
into their eyes as though you are punching and leave it there as you kick. 

BROKEN RHYTHM: This combo is thrown with each technique being a genuine 
strike. Simply throw the jab-cross combination, return to your basic stance, then 
execute a low roundhouse kick. Done properly, the jab-cross combo should 
momentarily stun the opponent giving you opportunity to get the kick in. With this 
combo, you have the option to kick with either leg if you so choose. IMPORTANT 
NOTE- after executing the jab-cross, take half a shuffle backwards to give yourself 
room to throw a really good kick. If you kick from where you are after completing 
the jab-cross combo, you will be too close to get a really effective kick off. In the 
CONTINUOUS MOTION version of the combo, you don't have to adjust because 
of it's flow. The punches are more diversionary to allow you to get the kick in 
unexpectedly. 

FAKING, THEN KICKING: As mentioned before, a favorite way to land the 
SUBMARINE KICK (low roundhouse to opponents support leg when opponent 
attempts to leg block with lead) is to sucker your opponent into lifting a leg block 
high for you to go underneath. First, set a pattern by kicking at the thigh, making 
your opponent used to blocking it high. Do a hip thrust as though you are starting 
to kick, the second the opponent begins to lift the leg, come underneath with the 
SUBMARINE KICK to his support leg. 

PUSH KICK: Another set up for the low kick is to push kick first. If the push kick 
lands effectively, your opponent will either be staggered, or at least have forward 
momentum halted, as the push kick is being placed back to the ground, set it down 
into the step that leads to the roundhouse kick. In other words, you throw a lead-leg 
push kick, instead of retracting it, set it down into the ground into a step sideways 
(at a 45 degree angle) directly into roundkicking. 

DEFENSIVE SET UPS 

Above, I mentioned how to set up offensively for the low roundhouse kick. Now 
I'll discuss defensively setting it up. 

KICK to INSIDE OF OPPONENTS LEAD LEG: you can use this roundhouse 
kick with a similar objective to the push kick. When your opponent tries to move 
fwd's to strike, throw the short, rising roundkick to the inside of the lead ankle or 
knee. This will stagger him and nullify his attack. 

LEG BLOCK: After using a leg block to stop a kick, place the blocking leg down 
while stepping (as the offensive push kick set up) directly into a low roundhouse 



111 



kick. You can either attack the opponent's leg that he just kicked with (as he is still 
trying to set it down) or the support leg (he is still on one leg). 

AFTER SWEEPING KICK ASIDE: If you opponent throws a push kick, and 
you sweep it to your outside correctly, you will expose the back of your opponent, 
leaving the backs of his legs open targets for a low kick. Kick at the leg you swept 
aside, as that should be the easiest target. 

NOTE: I have not discussed this technique yet, but there is a method to block a 
mid-body level roundhouse kick AND sweep it aside. You can apply the above low 
kick counterattack the same way. 

LEANING AWAY FROM HIGH KICK: If your opponent throws a high 
roundhouse kick, one defense is to simply lean back so that the kick misses. When 
your opponent misses, the missed kick will continue to spin him exposing his back. 
Again, I recommend attacking the kicking leg as he brings it down to the floor. 

Blocking Low Roundhouse Kick 

Pick your checking (attacked) leg up, and turn it out slightly. You should take the 
kick directly on the front of your shin, never on the outside of your shin - too much 
soft tissue (bruising) and also the smaller fibula bone in your shin could be 
fractured. 

Try to take the kick higher on your shin rather than lower; the tibia bone is thicker 
& stronger here, but we generally want to avoid contact with the knee. 

Now this is important for fighters: Try to take the check high on your shin, but 
strike your opponent low on the shin. IE: turn your checking leg out slightly to 
make contact with your opponents lower shin - right on his ankle joint if you can. 
Checking in this manner will hurt your opponent a great deal and he will quickly 
lose interest in throwing kicks at you. 

Also: Raise your foot up when you check, do not leave your toes pointing towards 
the floor. This adds muscular strength to your check via the Tibialis Anterior 
muscle on the front of your shin, and protects your ankle. You do not want to be 
kicked on that ankle! 

Another reason to turn your shin so that it "faces" the oncoming kick is so you 
don't get moved by the kick. 

A common mistake I've seen Muay Thai novices make is that they lift the leg 
straight up with the knee pointed towards their opponent during the block. Besides 
presetting the soft tissue to the kick, the force of impact can turn you, therefore 
presetting your side to your opponent. 

Though we are talking semantics only, I have been taught that you block WITH 
your knee, because the knee is much stronger than the shin. In truth, you are not 



112 



blocking with the knee cap (patella), but the very thick part of the shin immediately 
under the knee cap. 



113 



KON MUAY THAI 



Kon Muay means the movements or the styles of using Muay Thai as the art of 
Fighting both of the attack and the defense, which are named by the characteristic 
of the usage. If using for example the attack called Knon Muay JuJom. If using 
for the defense or counter called Kon Muay-Kae. If using for the defense and 
counter by the fists called Kon Muay-Kae Mad, to defend and counter by the feet 
called Kon Muay-Kae Tao, to defend and counter by the knees called Kon Muay- 
Kae Kao, to defend and counter by the elbows called Kon Muay-Kae Sok. 

Kon Muay are divided: 

Kon Muay - Kae Mad 29 Kon 
Kon Muay - Kae Thao 23 Kon 
Kon Muay - Kae Khao 3 Kon 
Kon Muay - Kae Sok 4 Kon 
Kon Muay - JuJom 23 Kon 



114 



Kon Muay-Kae Mad 29 Kon 




CROSS-SWITCH MOVEMENT 



This Kon Muay is the first skill of Mai Km. If the master of basic movement to escape outside in 
order to use the other techniques. 

The attacker walks in and strikes the defensive's face with the left punch. 

The defensive steps obliquely for wards to outside with the weight on the right leg. Use the 
left arm pushing out the punch from face. Throws the right punch to the attacker' eye socket. 

If the attacker strobes with the right punch do the same as above in the opposite directions, Be 
trained in both left and right to get more skillful until to know what to do by your own instinct. 
It's the basic main movement to use the Ma Yong style (HORSE-WALKING) approached to Mai 
Muay Thai in order to practice the more difficult movements (the other techniques). 



115 



PAKSA WAEG RANG 




The bird peeping through the nest Movement 



This Kon Muay is the master of fighting at close quarters in order to fright with other techniques. 
The attacker walks in and throws the right punch to the face, while holds up the left guard. 
The defensive steps the left foot obliquely to the right side at close quarters, the weight on the left 
foot. Pares the punch out of the face by the left arm and counter by throwing the right punch to the 
attacker's face immediately. 

If the attacker throws the left punch, do the same as above in the opposite directions. 



116 



GHAWA SAD HDK 



The Java Thaws spear Movement 



This Kon Muay is the main style to 
sidestep out of the straight punch 
and counter by the elbow. 
The attacker walks in and throws 
the left punch to the defensives face. 
The defensive steps out quickly by 
the right foot obliquely to out circle 
(the weight on the right leg) close to 
the attacker. Pares the attacker's 
punch out by the left arm. Bend the 
right arm as the angle burst in to the 
attacker's rib. 

If the attacker throws the right 
punch do the same as above in the 
opposite directions. For training, the 
attackers must not throw the elbow 
to the rib, but use the arm touch the 
rib. Do it slowly for training. If you 
do it very fast, the trance may be 
injured. 




MAD TMK GMT 




Inao stabs his Kris 



It is the main style to block the straight punch by fighting at close quarters. 
The attacker walks in and throws the left punch to the defensive' face. 

The defensive steps in hurry by the left foot obliquely to inside (the weight on the left leg). Pares 
the punch out by the right arm. Bends the left arm as the angle paralleled to the floor in order to 
burst the attacker's rib. 

If the attacker throws the right punch, the defensive do the same as above in the opposite 
directions. 



117 



YD KHAO FBASUHARU 




This Kon Muay use for defense the 
straight punch at close quarters by let 
the punch pass over the head and 
throwing the punch at the chin. 

The attacker walks in and throws 
the left punch at the defensive's face. 

The defensive bends the head 
down, let the punch pass over while 
steps forwards with the left foot. Then 
throws suddenly the left punch to the 
attacker's chin. 

If the attacker throws with the right 
punch. Do the same as above in the 
opposite directions. 




TA THEN KHAM FAK 




The old man holding a pod Movemen 



This Kon Muay is the basic technique to defense the upper punch by pushing the punch out with 
the arm. 

The attacker walks in and throws the left punch to the defensive's face 
The defensive steps forward by crossing the left foot in to the attacker's in-circle, the weight on 
the left leg. Bends the right arm and holds up in the front of the face. Then throws it over to push 
the attacker's fist out over the head. Throws the left punch to the tip of the chin. 
If the attacker throws with the right punch. Do the same as above in the opposite directions. 



118 




The Mon press against the 
pillar Movement 



This Kon Muay is the important main 
movement to defense against the fist 
by pressing against the top of the chest or 
the abdomen. 

The attacker walks in and throws the left 
fist to the defensive's face. 

The defensive holds the both hands up to 
guard one's face, while thrusting with the 
left leg to the top of the chest or the 
abdomen. 

If the attacker throws the right fist. Do the 
same as above in the opposite directions. 




KHUN SUEK TEE THUAH 



The warlord hit with the 
lance Movement 




I 



the same as above in the opposite 
directions. 



119 



DAB MAMA 




Extinguish the lamps Movement 



This Kon Muay is using to defend the straight punch by throwing the punch to the face. 

The attacker walks in and throws the left straight punch at the defensives face. Guard over the 
chin with the right fist. 

The defensive steps the right foot out obliquely to the out-circle at the level of the straight fist, 
the weight on the right leg. Grabs the punch with the right arm then press down the attacker's left 
arm in order to make the clear target at the chin. Then throws the left punch to the face at the 
same time of to pressing own. 

If the attacker throws the right fist. Do the same as above in the opposite directions. 



HOC TAI RAO 



Rat walks on the line 
Movement 



This Kon Muay is Mae Mai, the master 
movement of training to slow down 
The strength punch and gets the opportunity 
to counter by kicking kneeing or throw a 
punch as you like. 

The attacker walks in and throws the right 
punch to the defensive's face. 

The defensive pounces the right hand on 
the attacker's left immerse wrist and the joint 
of the elbow at the same time. Bends the 
body to the back in order to slow down the 
straighten punch and throws the right knee 
or counter by kicking at the attacker's rib at 
once. 

If the attacker throws the left punch, do the 
same as above in the opposite directions. 




120 




This movement uses for defense the 
punch by turning the body to push the fist 
out and counter by throwing the swinging 
punch at the same time. 
The defensive pushes the punch out 
with the right arm and steps the right foot 
obliquely to the outside in order to make a 
distance to deliver the punch. Then up 
the left punch to the tip of the chin. 

If the attacker throws the right punch. 
Do the same as above in the opposite 
directions. 



HAMUMAN THAWAI WAEK 




Monkey presents the ring Movement 



This movement used for defense the punch or the foot of the opponent by usage at close quarters and 
threw up both of the fists to the tip of the chin. 

The attacker walks in and throws the right punch to the defensive's face. 

The defensive sways the body to escape from the punch and suddenly 
steps by the right foot at close quarters, then turns to the left and throws up 
both of punches to the tip of chin. (This action called : MAD SOI DAO KOO, 
or the both uppercuts. 

If the attacker throws the left punch. Do the same as above in opposite directions. 



121 



HONG PEEK HAK 




Swan with broken wings Movement 



This Kon Muay used to defend against the punch by steps quickly to incircle and striking to the 
shoulder with the elbow. The shoulder may be broken out of the socket or badly hurt. 
The attacker walks in and throws the right punch to the defensive's face 
The defensive steps with the left foot at close quarters, pushes the fist out with the left arm and 
then strikes the right shoulder with the right elbow. 
If the attacker throws the left punch. Do the same as above in the opposite directions. 




To tattoo a lei or making a ring of flowers as the necklace Movement 



This movement is used for close to the body and throws up the elbow to the rib or the reed of a pipe. 
The attacker walks in and throws the left punch to the defensive's face. 
The defensive counters by stepping the right foot close to the attacker and uses the right arm to 
brush off the attacker's left fist away and throws the left elbow up to the chest of the rib of the attacker. 
If the attacker throws the right fist. Do the same as above in the opposite directions. 



122 



Slicing the cubumber Movement 



This movement is used for the quick approach to the body and throws the elbow to the forehead. 

The attacker walks in and throws the right punch to the defensive's face. 

The defensive counters by stepping the left foot into the inside, using the left arm to push the fist 
out, stepping the left foot close at quarters and throws the right elbow at the forehead. 

If the attacker throws the left punch, do the same as above in the opposite directions. 



KtiUH YAK Pfl HflHG J 
(1 "ko^<a^iad 



This Kon Muay uses the hand to enfold the body 
and trips with the leg then threw by the hip. Now 
a day does not use this trick on the canvas. 

The attacker throws the straight left punch to 
the defensive's face. 

The defensive steps the right foot oblique to the 
right and sways to escape from the opponent's fist 
then steps the left foot closed to the body while 
enfolds the opponent's body with the left hand and 
threw down with the hip. 

If the attacker strikes with the right punch, do the 
same as above in the opposite directions. 




123 



Close, cover and hit with the elbow Movement 



This Kon Muay is another of Mai Kru to protect the fists. The use of this technique is guarding the 
arms to cover the head and swaying the body in order to let the punch passed through the neck pit. 

The attacker walks in and throws the right punch at the defensive's face. 

The defensive counters by stepping the right foot inside and uses the arm to guard on the head 
which lets the punch passed near the arm. Then hurry to step in with the right foot and threw up the 
elbow to the forehead. If the attacker throws the left fist, do the same as above in the opposite 
directions. 



KLUEFH GRATHOB FANG 




This Kon Muay used for de pence against the fist by roll the body in close to the opponent and throwing 
the elbow reverse pounding the chest or rib. 
The attacker walks in and throws the right punch to the defensive's face. 

The defensive steps the left foot obliquely to the attacker's left side the weight and the left foot then 
turns the body to throw the swinging back elbow to the chest or the rib. If the attacker throws with the 
left punch, do the same as above in opposite direction. 



124 



KON KAE MAD 



This is the main movement (Mae Mai) of Muay Thai for training to defend the fists by alternating the 
feet and pushed the arm out. The opponent's fist would passed over the shoulder. It'd make clear 
targets in order for you to attack as you wish. (The same movement as Kon Pak Sa Waeg Rang) 

The attacker hit with the right fist to the opponent's face and holds on 
the left hand guard. 

The defensive steps the right foot for words, the weight on the right foot and teeps looking at the 
opponent. Then throws the straight left punch with the swinging shoulder and push to the inner part 
of the arm away, lefting the opponent's fist passed over the head. Then you can counter by 
using all parts of body such as right fist, right elbow, the left foot or the left knee. If the attacker 
throws with the left fist, do the same as above in the opposite directions. 



125 



BATH A LOOB FAK 




KON KAE MAD 



This Kon Muay used for defense against the fist by sweeping back with the hand and throwing the 
straight kick to the chin 
The attacker throws the left punch to the defensive's face 

The defensive wipes the opponent's fist out and throws the right foot to the tip of the chin. 
If the attacker throws with the right fist do the same as above in the opposite directions. 



KON KAE MAD 



This Kon Muay used to counter the fist by 
throwing the punch and foot at the same 
time. This technique can be used both of 
outside and inside. 

The attacker walks in and throws the 
right punch to the defensive' shoulder while 
holding up the left-hand guard. 

The defensive steps the left foot 
forwards to throwing the fist and the kick 
then strikes the right punch to the face and 
the left kick to the rib at the same time. 

If the attacker throws with the left punch 
do the same as above in the opposite 
directions. 




126 




This Kon Muay used to defense the 
fists by throwing the swinging punch 
Passage over the arm to the head on the 
temple. (Which the opponent might be 
kill by) 

The attacker walks in and throws the 
right fist to the face and holds on the 
left-hand guard. 

The defensive steps the right foot 
oblique to the right the weight on the 
right foot, throws the swinging left 
punch to the temple and holds on the 
right punch in order to throw it again. 

If the attacker throw with the left 
punch do the same as above in opposite 
directions. 



LDDK KANG JAB MAD 



m 9 





KON KAE MAD 



This Kon Muay is based on the suitability of the diversion of the head and the alternative of the body 
as Ma Yong (horse walks) 

The attacker walks forwards and throws the right punch to the defensive) face. 

The defensive steps the right foot and sways the body a little inside, lets the punch passed through 
the left side of the neck then turns the head to pressed the arm and strikes the left hand to the elbow 
on rolled in the elbow by the technique of Kon Hiran Muan Pan din. 

If the attacker throws the left punch do the same as above in opposite directions. 



127 




KON KAE MAD 



This Kon Muay is used to defend against the straight punch which threw to face by swinging the arm 
to wipe the punch and trapping the immure wrist with the armpit then striking the palm to the elbow. 

The attacker walks in and throws the right punch to the defensive's face while holding on the left- 
hand guard. 

The defensive steps forwards obliquely the weight on the right foot and sways the body to block the 
attacker's arm with the left arm then traps the inner wrist with the armpit and throws up the left palm to 
the elbow joint in order to break the arm. 



128 



SDK TUT THOT 




KON KAE MAD 



This Kon Muay is used to counter the fists by passing under the punch and jump to the back of the 
body to throw the elbow to the attacker. 

The attacker throws the straight right punch to the defensive's face and holds on the left-hand 
guard. 

The defensive alternates the left foot and steps out to the left then bends the head passes under the 
arm and steps the right foot to the back of the opponent. Then throws the right elbow to the middle of 
the spine. This trick may injure the nervous system. 

If the attacker throws with the left, do the same as above in the opposite directions 



KWAHG JAK 




KON KAE MAD 



This Kon Muay used to counter by 
throwing the powerful punch to break the ribs. 

The attacker throws the straight right 
punch to the defensive' face and holds 
on the left hand guard. 

The defensive steps the left foot obliquely 
outside the weight on the left foot and 
throwing the swinging punch to the rib which 
might be broken the jaws or the rib. 

If the attacker throws the left punch do the 
same as above in opposite directions. 



129 



II 'I.I Nil!.' 




KON KAE MAD 



This Kon Muay in Kon Muay Kae Mad by kicking with the back foot, the attacker throws the left punch 
to the defensive's face and holds on the right guard. 

The defensive steps the left foot outwards to the left a little the weight on the left foot, wiped the 
opponent's punch out by the right hand. Then throws the right back foot to the attacker's left chin and 
prepares to throw the left punch. 

If the attacker throws with the right punch do the same as above in the opposite directions. 



130 




KON KAE MAD 



This Kon Muay is using used both of the elbow and the knee at the same Time. It is the close distance 
of fighting. 

The attacker throws the right punch to the defensive's chest or throws the swinging elbow to the 
chest. 

The defensive steps the left foot out and steps close to the body then throws the left elbow and 
strikes the knee or the socket at the same time throws the elbow to the chin. 
If the attacker throws the left of fist or elbow do the same as above in the opposite directions. 



131 




KON KAE MAD 



This Kon Muay is using the heel to attack by swinging back when the opponent throws with the 

powerful punch missing the target and losing his balance. Turning the body to throw the swinging 

back kick to the kidney with the heel. 
The attacker throws the straight right punch with the most powers and loses his balance 
The defensive steps the right foot out and sways the body to escape from the punch and lets 

the fist passed over the shoulder about 6 inches, the weight on the left foot then strikes the hell to 

the kidney which is the back of the opponent. 
If the attacker throws with the left punch do the same as above in the opposite directions. 



132 



Kon Muay-Kae Thao 23 Kon 



PAK LOOK THOY 




This Kon Muay is the important technique, 
which is, used for defense against the kick by 
throws the elbow to the skin. 

The attacker throws the swinging right foot 
to the defensive's face and keeps up the hands 
for his guards. 

The defensive steps with the right foot about 
a half of step weight on the right foot then 
turns to the direction of the kick, holds up the 
right elbow at the level of the shin and also hold 
up the left hand guard at the level of the neck 
to protect the face. 

If the attacker throws the left foot do the 
opposite as above. But in training uses the 
forehand instead of the elbow 




NAKfl BID HANG 




KON KAE THAO 



It's the main technique to defend against a kick by twisting the tip of foot with the both hands and 
striking the knee to break it. 

The attacker walks in and throws the right swinging kick to the defensive's face while keep up both 
hand guards. 

The defensive quick to turn around to the direction of the kick the weight on the left foot as the 
Singhayat-Style (the lion's walking). Thrust the tip of foot with the right forehand and catches the heel 
with the left hand then twists out the tip of foot with the right hand, pulled the heel in with the left hand 
and stroked to the opponent's calf with the knee. 

In training must be careful to do it in lightly actions. 



133 



HAK HGUAHG AIYARA 




To break the elephant's trunk Movement 



This Kon Muay is uses for counter of the kick by throwing the elbow at The ham string. 

The attacker walks in and kicks forwards to the rib while guarding with both hands. 

The defensive crosses the steps approaches the attacker in close distance, turns to the direction of 
the attacker's kick, and throws the right elbow to the attacker's ham string. At the same time blocks his 
calf with the left arm which pull up to the high position in order to protect the attacker's elbow. 

If the attacker kicks with the left foot, do the same as above in the opposite directions. 






m 















The bird somersaults Movement 



This movement is used for defense against kicking by throwing the heel to the calf. 
The attacker walks in and throws the right foot to the defensive while holding up the hand in the 
guard. 

The defensive turns the body to the direction of the kick and stands confidently with the weight on 
the left leg and throws the right hell to the attacker's thigh. The holds up both hands guards and to 
protect the rib. 

If the attacker kicks with the left foot, do the same as above in the opposite directions. 



134 



HIRAM PAN PAH DIH 



The giant turning the earth Movement 



This movement is the master technique of using the 
swinging back elbow to hit the opponent. Even if the 
attacker uses a different movement such as throwing with 
the knee, the fist, or kick, you can counter by throwing the 
swinging back elbow. 

The attacker walks in and throws the right kick to the 
defensive's neck. 

The defensive steps the left foot to the direction of the 
kick, turns the body to the attacker and guards with the 
right elbow then turns on to the left side, and strikes the 
back elbow to the attacker's forehead. 

If the attacker kicks with the left foot, do the same as 
above in the opposite directions. 



NAK HOOD I! ADAH 




Serpent sneaks to the ocean Kingdom Movement 



This movement is use for bending the body to escape from the kick and throwing the tip of foot to the 
confidently standing leg to make the opponent fell down. 

The attacker walks in and kicks with the right foot at the defensive's neck. 

The defensive step forwards with the left foot keep note of the distance of a kick then ducking the 
body in order to let the opponent's kick passed over the head. Then strikes the tip of foot to the 
attacker's left thigh, which makes him fall down. 

If the attacker kicks with the left foot, do the some as above in the opposite directions. 




135 



This movement is used for counter by 
ducking the body to strike the tip of foot to 
the constant leg which makes the opponent 
fell down supinely. 

The defensive steps obliquely to the right 
side and guards the kick by holding up the left 
arm. Bending the body and turning the body 
then thrusting the left foot at the attacker's left 
by which makes him fell down supinely. 

If the attacker kicks with the left foot, do the 
save as above in the opposite directions. 



usee mm 




The ascetic fly's to the sky Movement 



This movement is the master of Mai Muay Thai uses for stopping all to the end of fighting (knock out) 
the trainee must to know how to mix the strain of the attacker's kicking and the strain of himself to 
make the efficiency of attacking. 

The attacker walks in and kicks with the right foot to the defensive's face. 

The defensive bends the body forwards and puts the left hand out to press at the hamstring (close to 
the knee' cap). The mixes the straighten of the attacker's kicking and the straighten of jumping with 
both feet, then throws the fist to the attacker's face or to the tip of the chin. 

If the attacker kicks with the left foot, do the same as above in the opposite directions. This master 
movement's also use for defense the attack from the knee by the same counter but changes from 
throwing the fist in to throwing the elbow. 




136 





This movement is the master trick of Muay Thai. 
This Mae Mai is: counter by mixing the strength of 
the kick, the knee and the strength of the jumping 
out (the total of 3 strength all together). Then 
throws to the target, with the knee. 

The attacker walks in and kicks with the right foot 
to the rib. 

The defensive jumps up and push the left foots to 
the hamstring, and gets together the strength of the 
right knee and the opponent's kicking (in the 
character of throwing to the chin or throwing to the 
tip of chest). The three of those actions may blow 
the body up. 

If the attacker throws the left foot or the left knee, 
do the same as above in the opposite directions. 



BAKPOD THAIOM 




The mountain falls down Movement or one falls down on the shin Movement 



This movement is used for defense against the kick by falling the body down and throwing the 
elbow to the hamstring and then falling the body down on the whole leg which then might be broken. 

The attacker walks in and throws the right foot to the defensive's rib. 

The defensive holds the left elbow up and falls down to the shin, and strikes the elbow to the 
attacker's ham which then the leg might be broken. 

Be careful, the trainee ought to begin by practice to fall the body down when faced to the floor 
many times to get more the skill full. 

If the attacker kicks with the left foot, do the opposite directions as above. 



137 



NANG MONTHO HUANG THEN 




The queen "Montho" sits on the table Movement 



This movement is used for attack or defense the foot or the punch by Turning back and throwing the 
hip to the chest. 

The attacker walks in and throws the left foot or the left fist to the defensive's face. 
The defensive turns back on the right side, then jumps over to the backside and throws the hip to 
the chest, the action is making the attacker fall down supinely. 
If the attacker throws the right foot or the right fist, do the same as above in the opposite directions. 



UD NGUANG EUWAN 




Grasps the elephant's trunk Movement 



This movement is used for grasping and counter by throwing the punch. 
The attacker walks in and kicks with right foot to the defensive rib. 
The defensive steps the right foot obliquely to the right side, weight on 

The right pushes the left hand against the kicking. Then steps the left foot in, and grasps the foot 
with the left hand pulling it in to the ampit, then throwing the straight right punch to the opponent's 
face at the same time. 
If the attacker kicks with the left foot, do the same as above in the opposite directions. 



138 



Push the plant Movement 



This movement is used for defense of the foot by bending the arm, ducking the body and pushing 
the calf with that bending arm and throwing a punch to make the opponent had fallen down. 
The attacker walks in and kicks with the left foot at the defensive's neck. 

The defensive steps with the right foot at the distance of the joint of the leg (which is kicked by the 
opponent) then bends the knee in the action of nearly sitting. And bends an arm to protect the head, 
swings the elbow up to the knee joint or the calf, jumping up to burst out the leg, At the same time, 
Strikes the left punch to the reed of a pipe or to the chin of the opponent. 

If the attacker kicks with the right toot do the same as above in the opposite directions. 



KHON BOOK KHAMOON 




Cuts the plant 



This movement is used for defense against the kick by bending the body to escape from kicking, and 
pulling the standing leg, which make the opponent fall down. 
The attacker walks in and kicks with the right foot to the defensive's face. 

The defensive steps with the right foot, bends the knee in the action of sitting, catches the heel with 
the right hand, pushes the knee with the left hand then jerk the right hand at the same time. And 
pushes the left hand at the time of pushing the body up. The opponent will fall down. 

If the attacker kick with the left foot, do the same as above in the opposite directions. 



139 




This movement is the master technique of 
Muay Thai, by using the rebound of strength 
(from the kicking of the opponent) to rebound 
one (who sit on the ham) to hit with the elbow. 

The attacker walks in and kicks with the right 
foot to the defensive's neck. 

The defensive twists to the left of the body 
I and jumps back to sit on the attacker's 
hamstring, then rebounds to throw the left 
elbow to the attackers fore head. 

If the attacker kicks with the left foot, do the 
same as above in the opposite directions. 



HflK UK PEGU 




Breaks the diamond pillar 
Movement 



This is a strong movement use for 
defense against the kick by breaking the 
leg with the both hands. 

The attacker walks in and kicks with 
the right foot at the defensive's chin. 

The defensive holds the right hand 
up to pounce on the tip of the foot and 
catches the heel with the left hand 
(similar to KON NAGA BID HANG) and 
presses it down. Then jumps and turns 
back to standard on the leg) then burst 
to the knee by striking the bottom to the 
knee at the same time jerking the heel 
up with the both hands. 

If the attacker kicks with the left foot, 
do the same as above in the opposite 
directions. 



140 



HAHUMAN FAD KUMPAXAH 





Monkey beats the giant 
Movement 



This Kon Muay is the 
technique which is used to 
defense against the strong 
foot. So that to use this trick 
must be depended on the 
occasion. 

The attacker walks in and 
kicks with the right foot to the 
defensive's neck. 

The defensive turns to catch 
the heel with both hands 
(similar to KON NAGA BID 
HANG). Then turn back to 
catch the heel, and carry it on 
the shoulder. Then bends the 
body forwards and throws the 
opponent pass over themselves 
on to the floor, which can make 
the opponent. 

If the attacker kicks with the 
left foot, do the same as abode 
in the opposite directions. 




141 



LING PREW 




Monkey jumps Movement 



This movement is used to escape from the punch or the kick then hid at the back of the 
opponent. Cat-chess both shoulders and throws the knee to the middle of the back. 

The attacker walks in and kicks with the left foot to the defensive's neck. 

The defensive steps with the right foot and bends the body down to lets the kick pass over. 
Then jumps to the back of the attacker, catches both the shoulders and throws up the knee to the 
back. 

If the attacker kicks with right foot, do the same as above in the opposite directions. 



YUAN MOD IAE 




Vietnamese casts a fishing net Movement 



This movement is used for defense against the thrusting by grabbing the leg by the arm and 
stepping out asides then counter by kicking to the opponent's knee-joint. 

The attacker walks in and thrusts with the left foot at the defensive's abdomen. 

The defensive steps with the right foot obliquely out of the circle grab the leg out with the left 
arm. Turns the body to throw up the right foot at the knee-joint at the same time. 

If the attacker thrusts with the right foot, do the same as above in the go opposite directions. 



142 



mi mm 




Suppresses the kick or Sweeps the giant Movement 



This movement is the master of the kick's defense in Muay Thai. The trainee must have the skillful 
ness of the usage are the strength and know the rhythms very well. To suppress the kick uses the 
elbow-sweeping pass through the attacker's shin. If practiced to sweep with the palm until got more 
skill, might be safer to practice Kon Ruesee Hern. 

The attacker walks in and kicks with the right foot to the defensive's rib. 

The defensive makes a cross switch and steps for wards with right foot by the "Horse Walked" 
rhythm. And push the right hand to strike at the hand through the tip of foot, then throw the straight 
left fist, and hold on the hand guards. 

If the attacker kicks with left foot, do the same as above in the opposite directions. 



HAHUMAN BAG KHAEKG 



Monkey carries on the calf Movement 



This movement is used for defense against 
the kick by passing under the kick and 
throwing the uppercut to the chin, while 
another foot steps on the opponent's 
constant leg in order to help jumping up. 

The attacker walks in and kicks with the 
right foot to the defensive's neck. 

The defensive steps the left foot obliquely 
to the left side, bends the body down 
passing under the kick. Steps with the right 
foot on the left constant leg of the attacker, 
throws the right uppercut to the chin while 
jumping up at the same time. 

If the attacker kicks with the left foot, do 
the same as above in the opposite directions. 




143 



GRAfSOMf KHAN HUAI 




The lion walks across the stream Movement 



This movement is used for defense against the high kick, which is kicking to the face, by throwing the 
tip of foot to the standing leg of the opponent. 
The attacker walks in and kicks with the right foot to the defensive's chin. 

The defensive turns on the body to the direction of kicking; and counter by bending the left arm up 
and puts the right foot in; throwing the tip of foot to the front of the standing leg to make Kim fall 
down. 

If the defensive kicks with the left foot, do the same as above in the opposite directions. 




144 



Kon Muay - Kae Khao 3 Kon 



PUG PANDIN 




Digs the earth Movement 



This movement is used for defense 
against the knee-kick by inserting the 
hand to the knee-joint to block it and 
launching or pushing out at the neck. 

The attacker walks in and strikes the 
right knee to the defensive's chest and 
holds on his arms in his guard. 

The defensive steps with the right foot 
obliquely the weight on the right leg, inserts 
the left hand to the knee-joint of the 
attacker. Then throws the right fists or 
pushes to the chin or the chest. 

If the attacker throws with the left, do the 
same as above in the opposite directions. 



KANCHAK TUNG LOW 




Blows the wind wheel Movement 



This movement is used for defense against 
the flying knee-kick by swaying to escape 
and putting the arm the insert at the knee- 
joint, while pushing to the chest with the 
other hand in order to make him fall down 
the head's struck the floor. 

The attacker jumps up and throws the 
right knee up to the chin or the chest. 

The defensive steps with the left foot out, 
pushes the knee out with the right hand and 
inserts the hand to the knee-join, while 
pushing at the chest with left hand. Then 
strikes the right hand up which makes the 
opponent fall back, the head striking on the 
floor. 

If the attacker throws the left of the flying 
knee-kick, do the same as above in the 
opposite's directions. 

Be careful, in the training do not push out 
to make fall down only touch and push 
lightly, because this movement may the 
skull. 



145 



Push the Sumeru mountain Movement 



This movement is used for defense against the 
knee-kick by stepping in close to the body and 
brush the knee out with the arm, then striking 
the elbow to the attacker's face. 

The attacker walks in and throws the right 
knee to the defensive's abdomen, holds both 
hands in the guard. 

The defensive steps the right foot obliquely to 
inside, strikes the left arm to the knee, then 
throws the right elbow to the attacker's face 
immediately. 

If the attacker throws the left knee, do the 
same as above in the opposite directions. 



146 



Kon Muay - Kae Sok 4 Kon 



PRARAMA HAD SORN 




The king "Rama" pulls the 
arrowstring Movement 



This movement is used for defense of the 
elbows which thrown from above by 
ducking the body and bending the arm to 
push over the elbow then throw out the 
fist. 

The attacker walks in at close distance, 
strikes both elbows to the forehead or to 
the crown of the head of the defensive. 

The defensive bends the head and 
ducking the body in order to suppress the 
attack, then holds up the right arm guard to 
protect the face from the elbow which is 
stroked down. And throws out the left 
punch at the same time. 

If counters by the left arm do the same, in 
the opposite directions. 





The king 11 RAMA" breaks the arrow 
Movement 



This movement is used to catch the 
swinging back elbow in the close Distance 
then twist it. 

The attacker walks in and swings the left 
back to the defensive's face while holding 
up on the right hand guard. 

The defensive steps forward by the left 
foot obliquely in the closed distance the 
right hand grabs the elbow while the left 
hand grabs the elbow while the left hand 
grabs the immer wrist at the same time (in 
order to escape from the elbow), then 
pressing down the left hand and strunk the 
right hand which caught the elbow down 
the shoulder might be broken. 

If the attacker attacks with the right elbow 
do the same as above in the opposite 
directions. 



147 



The king 11 Rama" strikes the arrow 
Movement 



This movement is used for defense against 
the swinging up elbow by pushing forehand 
at the joint. 

The attacker walks in close to the body 
bends the right elbow to strike up to the 
chin while holding on the left guard. 

The defensive steps right forwards at the 
level of the joint and striked the forehand to 
the attacker's joint. 

If the attacker attacks with left elbow do 
the same as above in the opposite 
directions. 



The king "Rama" presses the arrow 
Movement 



This Movement is used for defense against 
the swinging elbow by pressing the shoulder 
with the hand to suppress the strength of 
elbow and counter by 
striking the elbow or stepping and stroked 
up with the knee which depend on the 
occasions. 

The attacker walks in and attacks with 
right elbow. 

The defensive steps the right foot closed 
to the right side of the body inserted the 
right hand to pressed the shoulder to 
blocked the elbow then strikes the left 
elbow to the face or strikes the right knee to 
the rib. 

If the attacker throws the left elbow do the 
same as above in the opposite directions. 



Kon Muay-JuJom 23 Kon 



RAK KOR AIYARA 




This movement is used by walking in 
forwards and pulled the opponent down in 
order to throwing the knee up to the face 
or the chest. It is the rushed attack. 
The attacker walks in and hits with the 
left fist. 

The defensive steps the left foot 
forwards Then pushed both hands to the 
front while bending the head in both 
hands let the attacker's fist slice through 
the arm. Then the both hands pounce on 
the opponent to pull him down and strike 
him with the knee. 



KWAHG LIE W LANG 




Deer turn the neck to look 
backward Movement 



This movement is used for the 
attacks, which begins with a kick or 
thrust and follow by striking a kick 
using the heel to the abdomen or the 
wind. 

The attacker walks in and holds up 
both arms in the guard. 

The defensive rushes to the 
opponent and throws the left foot, 
then turn up to kick with the heel at 
the chest or the chin. 

If the attacker begins with right foot, 
do the same as above in the opposite 
directions. 



149 



The giant catch monkey Movement 




1 .A 



This movement is used for basic training which called Ruammai. The Attacker attacks by throwing 
of a punch, a kick and the elbow as a suit of fighting. The defensive defenses by a defense suit of 
fists, kick and elbows. 
The attacker walks in and throws a left fist to the face. 

The defensive steps left foot forwards, wiped the punch out of the neck by the right arm. 




The attacker throws a right kick followed are punch to the rib. 

The defensive steps backwards by the left foot face to face with the attacker; bends the arm 
and strikes to the attacker's ham. 



150 




The attacker strikes the right swinging elbow to the defensive's head. 

The defensive turns to be have his BC facing the attacker, bends up the arm against the elbow 
and steps backward about a half of step. 

If the attacker begins with the right punch do the same as above in the opposite directions. 



TALOB KHUEH 




Spurn from the bottom to the 
top Movement 



This movement is used against for 
the attack by insert both hands into 
The others guard and opening out. 
Striking knee to the chest or abdomen. 

The attacker walks in and guarding 
by the left fist. 

The defensive walks in and inserts 
the both hands to the arms-guard of 
the attacker and opened them. Then 
stripes the knee to the chest or 
abdomen. 

If the attacker walks in with the right 
hand guard, the defensive is thrown 
with the right knee. 



151 




Crow tears the net 
Movement 



This movement is used for attack by 
opening the guard and jumping to 
Throw a kick to the chin or the chest. 

The attacker walks in with the left 
guard in the front. 

The defensive jumps to throw the 
left knee to the tip of chest or the chin 
while inserting both hands up inside and 
opening the attacker's guards in order to 
let the knee to the target. 

If the attacker walked in with the right 
guard, jump and throw the right knee 



TALOB LONG 




Press down and throw up the 
knee Movement 



This movement is used for attack by 
grabbing the attacker's guards and 
Throwing knee to the chest or 
abdomen. 

The attacker walked in obliquely 
with the guards in level of the chest. 

The defensive grabs the attacker's 
guards with both hands and presses 
down. Then throws the left knee to the 
target. 

If the attacker held on the right 
guard, jump and throw the right knee. 



152 



HAHUMAH WEAK FQNG 




This movement is used for attack by 
jumped to throwing the knee to the 
chest or chin while pressing the 
opponent guards down at the same 
time. 

The attacker walks in with the right 
step. 

The defensive jumps and threw the 
right knee to the attacker's chin or chest 
while grabbling and pressing the 
attacker's guards down at the same 
time. 

If the attacker walked in with the left 
step, throw with the left knee. 



NUK KH1 KAO RANG 




A quail goes into the nest Movement 



This movement is used for attack to the bigger opponent by rolling up Before jumping and threw 
the fist, elbow and knee to face, body and abdomen at the same time. 
The attacker walked in while opening area of the chest. 

The defensive jumps in the characteristic of both fists covered to the chest and the head while 
being the knee to cover the abdomen (which is similar to a quail striking the opponent), then 
strikes at the chin with the punch, striking the elbow to the and striking the knee to abdomen in the 
strongest actions. 

Usually trained together and usually trained to jump. It would be efficient. 



153 



An ascetic drive in the pond Movement 



This movement is the important master techniques of attacking by jumping Parallel to the floor to 
attack the opponent. 
The attacker stands with guards and stepped to the defensive. 

The defensive inserts both hands in the gap of the attacker's guards and swipes out both sides, 
then jumps parallel to the floor and sides, then jumps parallel to the floor and strikes the head to the 
opponent's face. 

Be fore training this movement must practice to jump and strike (as the figure) on the grass or on a 
cushion to get more skillful. Even if it may be dangerous to the user oneself because it doesn't have 
the method of stopping or slowing the strengthen when fell down. 



154 



HAMUMAN TAYAH 



Monkey Jumps up Movement 




This movement is the highest of the 
master techniques of Muay Thai. 
There are a few people who could 
succeed to practice this. Because it 
depends on the missing of the kick and 
the kneeing together and strikes them 
at the opponent at the some time. 

The attacker walks to the defensive. 

The defensive kicks very strongly 
with the right foot and turns around 
then bends the left leg and jumps up to 
throw the right knee to the chest or the 
chin of the opponent. 

If practiced by throwing the left knee 
do the same as an above in the opposite 
directions. 



155 



HAK KOR ERA AH 




Break the elephant's neck 
Movement 



This movement is used for attack while 
the opponent has walked in and Bent the 
leg in the ladle-shape. Then walked to 
step on the knee as walked on the ladle. 

The defensive steps the left foot on 
the right ham of the attacker and hops 
the right foot up throwing the knee to the 
chest then strikes the both elbows to the 
crown of the head. 

If the attacker steps forward with left 
foot do the same as above in the opposite 
directions. 



IAPIEH FANG TDK 




Fish hides back of a stump 
Movement 



This Movement is the quickest attack 
and very efficient in Muay Thai. By 
Throwing the elbow and the knee while 
jumping to the opponent's side as the fish 
escaped to hide at back of a stump. 

The attacker walks in and throws the 
right punch to the face or walks in while 
right shoulder oblique to the front. 

The defensive steps the left foot out 
side a little which it suitable to elbow and 
knee, then jumps up to escape from the 
quick and strong punch, while threw the 
elbow to the face, the knee to the chest 
or the of the attacker 

If the attacker throws the left punch or 
walks in with the left shoulder's out to the 
front. Do the same as above in the 
opposite directions. 



156 




4*. 4 




Crocodile sweeps its tail 
Movement 



This movement is a strong attack by 
striking a upwards kick to a pit of The 
neck. 

The attacker does the footwork to 
throwing the right punch or right kick. 

The defensive steps in to get the 
occasion to strike with a strong kick 
while holding the guard at the level of 
the face. Then turns are and strikes the 
swing kick to pit of the neck (with the 
most strongest action), which the neck 
can be broken. 

If the attacker uses the left punch or 
the left foot be kick him with the left 
foot. 



YAK ERA WAN 




Push the elephant Movement 



This movement is used for close attack 
by pushing the opponent's knee To 
prevent the kick then delivers the knee 
kick to the chest (as turned up planks 
from the bottom to the top). 

The attacker walks in and hit with the 
right fist or steps forwards with the right 
leg. 

The defensive steps with the left foot 
closes to the attacker, bends the body 
down to push the knee and delivers the 
knee kick to the chest at the same time. 

If the attacker throws the left punch or 
steps forwards with the left foot, do the 
opposite. 



157 



THEN KW AD LAN 




The old man swipes the floor 
Movement 



This movement used to attack the low 
parts in the strong actions which it Could 
hurt the leg or make the head to the 
floor. 

The attacks walk in and kick with the 
right foot or stands with a pair of feet. 

The defensive does the foot works and 
kicks forwards while ducking to escape 
from the attacker's kick, lets it pass over 
the head, then throw the most strongest 
kick to the attacker instep. If the attacks 
stands with a pair of feet, the kick at the 
front leg. 

If the attacker kicks with the right foot, 
the duck and kick with left foot. If the 
attacker stands with a pair of feet, 
together kick one of them. 



PIMMM TEE TAB 




The king " Rama " attacks an 
army Movement 



This movement is the skill of attack or 
the master of the skill which stop The 
fighting to the ends by jumping at the 
side and countering by throwing the 
punch and the kick at the same time. 

The attacker walks in and throw the 
straight right punch or stands with left 
leg in the front. 

The defensive jumps to the side of 
the attacker and threw the straight right 
punch to the chin, kicking at the chest 
with right shin at the same time (if the 
defensive couldn't jump in correct 
position, the kick or the punch might 
pass the opponent's shoulder). 

If the attacker throws the left punch or 
steps with the right foot do the opposite. 



158 



PR AR AH A SAKOD TAB 




Alternating of kicks by leg and heel Movement 



It is the strong attack, which made the opponent crippled by jumping up and throwing the kick and 
the heel to the chin and wind pipe. 

The attacker walks in and throws the right punch or stands with his guards up and steps by the left 
foot. 

The defensive steps obliquely to the right and still holding that step the right knee now at the level 
of the shoulder (only reach the floor) then jumping up with the left foot and throwing the hell to the 
chin. While stepping with the right foot in the air, at the same time throwing the left foot and striking 
the knee to the tip of the chest and onwards to the chin. 

If the attacker throws with the left punch do the opposite. 



BANSEAH THODSAKAH 



Cut the giant's neck Movement 



This movement is the complimentary 
technique of KON NOKKHOOM KAO RENG 
It used to strike or to deliver both knees to the 
chin and both elbows to the crown of the head, 
it's a strong technique. 

The attacker does the footwork to the 
defensive while both hand guard stay at level of 
the chest. 

The defensive jumps up to deliver both knees 
to the chin and strike the both elbows to the 
middle of the crown of the head. 

The trainees have to practiced by jumping up 
until they are skillful, because it is the skill of the 
conquer. 




159 



KWAHG JM NARAI 



Turns back and strikes with back 
punch Movement 



This movement is the complimentary 
technique of KON HIRAN MUAN PAEN DIN 
In the training, the students practice by 
turning back quickly in suitable actions. 

The attacker walks in and throws the right 
punch or the attacker walks in closed to the 
body. 

The defensive steps out to the left side of 
the opponent in suitable distance of back fist 
then turns back and strikes the back punch to 
the attacker's face immediately. 

If the attacker throws the left fist do the 
opposite. 



PRAFAMA TEH LOKGKA 




The king " Rama" steps on the city of Longka Movement 



This movement is complimentary of kon prarama dern dong. The Trainees who want to practice 
this movement must have had the skill of KON PRAPAMA DERN DONG Must have the knowledge of 
how to mix the strength of the opponent's kick and the strength of the jumping kick of oneself. 

The attacker walks in and throws the right kick to the defensive's rib. 

The defensive steps the left foot on the attacker's shin and jumps up to kick to the pit of the neck 
or the face of the opponent at the same time. If the attacker throws with the left foot do the opposite 



160 




RAMASOOH KWAHG KWAH 




Giant throws the ask Movement 



This movement is the skill of attack by jumping to grab the attackers both hands and threw the 
elbow to the forehead. It's the pair of KON MEKHALA LO KAEW. The one, who has, have thrown 
with the elbow, stepped back while ducking body back and turned back to pounced the opponent's 
elbow. If the trainees used in correct Movements, they're beautiful actions. 

The attacker walks in and holds on the high guards. 

The defensive jumps up to grab the both immure wrists and throw the right elbow to the forehead 
immediately. Each movement must be done at the same time. The jumping up must be trained to get 
very skillful, because it's the basic of this movement. (The basic of this Kon Muay) 



161 



HAHUMAH KHAN LDNGKA 




Monkey crosses the pool Movement 



This movement is the master technique jumping over the feet and using The other technique to 
hurt the opponent. 
The attacker walks in and throws the right foot to the defensive's rib. 

The defensive holds the left foot up jumping over the attacker's kick at the level of the hanastring, 
then delivers the right knee to the abdomen or the chest while pounced the right shoulder of the 
attacker with both hands. If the attacker kicks with the left do the opposite. 



NAHM KH AM SAMUD 




The king "Narai" crosses the ocean Movement 



The trainees must have the skill of KON HANUMAN KHAM LONGKA Before practicing this movement. 
Because to train of the jumping over the shin, the trainee must have known a high o kicks by his basic 
instinct. The jumping over the have was the constant high. 
The attacker walks in and throws the right foot to the defensive's rib. 

The defensive steps up the left foot over the kick and strikes to the floor then threw the right foot 
to the attacker's face or the pit of the neck. If the attacker kicks with the left do the opposite. 



162 



THE MASTER TRICKS 
AND THE COMPLIMENTARY TRICKS OF MUAY THAI 



Mae Mai Muay Thai or the master tricks of Thai boxing means of movements of 
Using Mai Muay Thai. The Trainees of Muay Thai must learn and practice before 
training another tricks in more details The old qualifications teachers had divided 
Mae Mai Muay Thai to 15 Mai. 



163 



MAE MAI 15 Mai 



SAL AS FAN FLA 




THE MASTER TRICKS OF MUAY THAI 



This master trick is the main movement or the basic trick used for defensive or to escape from the 
opponent's straight punch by stepping out the armed-circle lets the punch passed by the face. 
The attacker throws the straight left fist to the defensive's face and steps the left foot forwards 
at the same time. 

The defensive escapes by stepped the right foot obliquely right side 1 step and always the body 
to the right side about 60 degrees the weight on the right foot, the right leg bent a little, in order 
to away the head and the body out and escapes from the attacker's punch. Then pounces on the 
upper part of the arm with the right hand and catches the attack's wrist with the left hand then 
turns front wrist up (This action is similar to break the hand) 



164 



Defenses in-circle 



This master trick is the teacher's trick (or 
the basic trick) to move in and used 
another tricks. 

The attacker throws the straight left 
punch to the defensive's face then steps 
the left foot forwards. 

The defensive stepped hurry forwards 
oblique to a half of the left side in the 
opponent's left arm and swaying the body 
about 60 degrees the weight on the left 
foot then bent the both arms to counter 
the upper part and the lower part of the 
attacker's arm, the both fists close to each 
other (similar to put the palms of the 
hands together in salute), the elbows 
open about 1 span (25 centimeters), the 
head and the face are covered by the both 
arms then glanced towards the opponent's 
right punch. 



CHAM SAD HDK 



Elbow out-circle 



This master trick is the main basic to 
escape from the straight punch by Stepped 
out and counter by throwing the elbow. 
The attacker throws the straight left 
punch to the defensive's face and steps the 
left foot forwards. 

The defensive steps hurriedly, then 
always the body about 30 degrees to a half 
of the right, the weight on the right foot, 
bent the left arm then striked the elbow to 
the attacker's rib. 



This muster skill-is the main basic 
technique deface the straighten punch 
And uses the elbow closes to the body in- 
circle. 

The attacker throws the straight left 
punch to the defensive's face then 
stepped forwards. 

The defensive steps quickly with the 
left foot forwards then the body always 
about 60 degrees to the nearly left side 
the weight on the left foot, penet the right 
elbow parallel to the floor and threw it to 
the attacker's rib. 




****** 



YD KHflO PBASUMARU 




Throws the down punch to the chin, bent the body 45 degrees 



This Mae-Mai used for defense the straight punch by bending the body down at close quarters 
lets the punch passed over the head then threw up the punch to the chin. 

The attacker throws the straight right punch to the defensive's face and steps with the right 
foot forwards at the same time. 

The defensive steps quickly with the left foot and slightly lowers the left knee while the right 
stays straight, and bends the body down forwards about 45 degrees weight on the left foot, at 
the same time throws up the right punch under the attacker's chin. Turns the head back to look 
at the attacker's chin while skill holds the left arm guard up on the front of the chin. 



166 



TA THEN KHAM FAK 




Throws the high punch to the chin, bend the body 60 degrees 



This master skill is the main basic used for defense the punch to the chin technique and push the 
attackers first away with your arm. 

The attacker throws the straight left punch to the defensive's face. Steps the left foot forwards 
at the same time. 

The defensive steps the left foot of forwards to the half right to the attacker closed quarters, 
bending the right arm to push the left punches out. Bends the left knees a little and throws up a 
left punch to the attacker's chin. 



MOD YAH LAK 



Defense the punch by throwing the 
kick 



It is the important master skill. This Mae Mai 
used to defense the fists by throwing a kick to 
the top of the chest or abdomen. 

The attacker throws the straight left punch 
and steps the left foot forwards. 

The defensives always out wards to the 
right about 45 degrees, the weight on the right 
foot. Bends the both arms to guard the face, 
at the same time throws the left foot to the top 
of the chest of the abdomen of the attacker to 
push him away. 




167 



PAK LOOK THOY 




Defense the kick with the elbow 



This master skill use for defense against the kick by throwing the elbow to the shin. 

The attacker stands in kicking distance and throws the right kick to the defensive's rib the 
defensive Bends the body a little and bends the both arm to guard the face. 

The defensive then always the body to the left then steps the left foot to the back. Bends the 
right arm and holds up to strike the attacker's kick. While still guarding the face with the left arm. 



DAB CHAW ALA 




Grapes the punch and throws the fist 



This master technique used for defense the straight punch by throwing the fist to the face. 

The attacker throws the left punch to the defensive's face, steps the left foot forwards and guards 
the chin with the right arm. 

The defensive steps the right foot forwards to a half right escape from the attacker's left punch, 
turns the body to right side. Grabs and pressed down the attacker' left arm and throws the left 
punch to the face then jumps to a half right side. 



168 



Defense the punch by kick 



This master skill used when the opponent throws the punch to the wrong target and loses his 
balance, then turns the body to kick by swinging the heel back. 
The attacker throws the straight left and steps the left foot forwards. 

The defensive is quick to jumping with right foot to half right in order to escaped the attacker's 
punch. Bends the arm to guard the face. Stands on the left foot and turns the body to kick at the 
abdomen or head with the right heel. 



169 



HflK HGUAHG AIYARA 




ft. 



Throws the elbow to the thigh 



This master trick used for counter the kick by throwing the elbow to the thigh. 

The attacker throws the right kick to the defensive's rib, bends the both arms to guard the face. 

The defensive is hurry to stepped the right foot forwards closed to the attacker. Turns the rib to 
the left, bends the right knee, while the left was straight, then catches the attacker's right foot with 
left hand and pulls it up, strikes the right elbow to the attacker's ham and holds the attacker's right 
foot on the high to lost the balance in order to defense the attacker's elbow. 



170 



NAKA BID HANG 




Ml 



Twists the leg and strikes the knee to the calf 



This master trick use to defense the kick by catching the tip of the foot With the both hands and 
twist it, then throws the knee to the leg. 

The attacker throws the right foot to the defensive's rib, bends the arm to guard the face. 

The defensive is hurry away to the left, the weight on the left foot, grasps the attacker heel 
with the left hand and grasps the tip of the foot twisted outwards then throws the right knee to the 
attacker's calf at the same time. 



[iniTu 




To counter the kick by throwing a 
kick 



This master trick use to counter the kick 
by throwing the heel to the ham. 
The attacker raises the left foot kick to 
the defensive's rib. 

The defensive is quick to throw the left 
foot to the left ham of the attacker, While 
holding on the both arms to guard the 
face. The kicking must do in rapidly and 
strongly to stroked the attacker turned 
back and lost his balance. 




171 



KHUAHYAK JAB LING 



Defense - fists - kick - elbow 



This master trick is the very important trick use for defense the opponent who is the quickly 
fighter by throwing the punch kick and elbow continually. To training is deviled into 3 parts. 

Part one 

The attacker throws the straight left punch to the defensive's face and steps the left foot 
forwards. 

The defensive steps the left foot hurriedly forwards close to the attacker' face. Wipes the 
attacker' left hand out by the right arm. 




Part two 



The attacker throws the right foot to the defensive's rib. 

The defensive hurry to away the body to the back estimates half of the left by stepping the left 
foot. Then ducking to throw the right elbow to the right thigh of the attacker 




172 



Part three 



The attacker beuds the right arms and throws the elbow to the defensive's head. 
The defensive quickly bends the arm into his guard to wipe the attacker's elbow and hurries to 
away the body and step back wards to the back about a half step. 





KOR ERA AN 



Pulls the neck downs and throws 
the knee 



The attacker throws the straight left 
punch and steps the left foot forwards 
towards the attacker and inserts the 
right arm to grab the attacker' left arm, 
then jumping to jerk the attacker' neck 
down and throw the knee to the face. 





173 



Control of Breath 



Biology aspect 

The control of breath, in-out from the lungs is a passive biomechanical response 
i.e., you do it naturally without working on it. Contrary to what many people 
believe, it is level of C02 that trigger breathing rate/responses, NOT oxygen. This 
is why it is more important to focus on the out breath than the in breath. 

You should breath in with your nose and out with your mouth. This prevents any 
unnecessary inhalation of carbon dioxide. 

IF YOU BREATH OUT HARD, YOU WILL AUTOMATICALLY BREATH IN, 
where as breathing in hard or soft doesn't really make a big difference to what 
happens in your lungs. 

Hence a lot of fighters make "chhh" noises when striking. Tradition says to make 
"yeeshhh" sound when striking with the knee and "sssa" sound is used when 
elbowing or punching. 

Also, the out breath tenses the abdominal muscles, and so protects nerve centers, 
guts and etc., so breathing out when getting struck is also good, as prepares for hit, 
and also means there's no air in you to get knocked out. 

Psychology aspect 

A common problem with beginners, one I particularly suffered from many years 
ago, is the big gulp and breath hold while charge. I didn't even realize I wasn't 
breathing till people told me "God sake, breath will you". Again the "chhh" (or 
"yeeshhh" or "sssa" or whatever sound you find comfortable and natural to make) 
with every strike makes sure you are breathing. A few folk will know, if you can't 
hear yourself breathing, your probably not! 

Regularly practicing your breathing when doing your pad/bag work, will make it 
become almost intrinsic, so that when it comes to fight time, you don't have to 
think about it - you'll do it naturally by instinct. 



174 



Oxygen Overloading 



When we inhale, our lungs are not filled up much beyond the upper third of their 
actual volume. We are only using a fraction of our vital capacity and the process of 
oxygen exchange in our bloodstream is inefficient. The blood is improperly 
cleaned of carbon dioxide and our brains and nervous systems are not fully 
oxygenated. We can experience many negative effects-physically, mentally, and 
emotionally-as a result. 

This is basically where you purposely hypervenalate to overload the body with 
oxygen. This is used when you are preparing for fight or between rounds. You 
simply do a series of very quick, sharp breaths while really exhaling hard. This will 
give you a serge of needed power. 

Breathing During Fight 

Internal breathing is like a tea kettle that is building up steam. As the pressure in 
the kettle increases, there will be a slow release of pressure though a small hole in 
the spout. There will always be near constant pressure within... With a rapid series 
of strikes, there will either be a release of several short bursts of air, or a release of 
a continuous stream of air out of the lungs. At the same time there will be air 
pressure maintained within the lungs, much like the tea kettle... Exhale when 
delivering a strike or kick, and train yourself to exhale and tighten the muscles 
when receiving a blow. This prevents the air from being knocked out of you and 
prepares your body to absorb the impact. 

Minimize your breaths. Shorter breaths mean even less vulnerability to a strike. 
Force your breath out through your mouth; inhalations will return through the nose 
almost automatically. Breaths are taken between movements (strikes, steps, blocks, 
drawing the arm back), and even during your breaths, you should hold your teeth 
tightly together, so you could more easily take a blow to the chin. 

Breathing Exercise 

Push your stomach muscles out and down to make them hard but not quite rigid. 
Practice breathing in and out while maintaining this strength—have a partner press 
into your stomach with a fist while you breathe until you feel yourself breathing 
naturally against pressure. Your exhalations now can be made with a tight 
stomach; normal exhalations are relaxations of the diaphragm and vulnerable 
moments as far as getting hit in the stomach is concerned. 

Breath deeply through the nose, without lifting up the shoulders, and imagine the 
air flowing through your nostrils, up the front and around your head, then down the 



175 



neck and spine, and around the groin and up to the center of your belly (just under 
navel), where it is tightly coiled and locked. When you exhale, slowly expel the air 
from the center of your belly up pass the solar plexus, up the wind pipe to the 
throat and out slowly from the mouth. The tongue must be presses against the 
bottom row of teeth, so as to provide a free flow out. On completion of exhalation, 
give a last strong push, focusing on the center of your belly and all the abdomen 
muscles. Keep the eyes fixed directly in front of you and avoid blinking. 



176 



Stance and Footwork in Detail 



There is only one stance in Muay Thai. Every technique is performed from this 
fighting position. One leg is placed in front of the body with the foot of that lead 
leg facing straight towards the opponent. The other leg is placed behind with the 
foot of that rear leg facing at about 45 degrees away from the lead foot. The rest of 
the body is also turned at about a 45 degree angle in synchronization with the rear 
foot. Half-facing is much more advantageous to the fighter than front-facing or 
side-facing because it minimizes the target areas by half. Front-facing exposes 
most of one's vital points while side-facing makes it extremely difficult to 
effectively deliver any of Muay Thai's most powerful techniques. The distance 
between each foot should be about shoulder-length and shoulder-width apart from 
each other. The Thai boxer stands upright while keeping the bodyweight on the 
balls of both feet. 

There are 2 variations on the basic fighting stance that depend upon which leg 
contains most of the bodyweight and which heel is raised higher than the other. If 
most of your bodyweight is in the lead leg, then the heel of your rear leg should be 
higher than the other. "Round" kicks can be performed a bit more quickly from this 
variation. If most of your bodyweight is in the rear leg, then the heel of your lead 
leg should be higher than the other. "Straight" kicks" can be performed at a slightly 
accelerated speed from this variation. The shoulders are raised and the forearms are 
lifted in front of the face. Most, however, prefer to leave their shoulders down and 
raise them only when a technique is being executed as keeping them up all of the 
time tends to reduced a combatant's energy levels. Always keep your chin down, 
though, and focus your eyes on your opponent's torso area. Observing your 
opponent's hips and shoulders should help you determine when that individual will 
strike next as well as which limb your adversary will use. Hip movement usually 
indicates the execution of a kick or knee strike while shoulder movement usually 
indicates the execution of a punch or elbow strike. 

The hands can either be in an open or closed position depending upon the personal 
preferences of the boxer in question. Some choose to bounce their lead legs up and 
down in order to be able to execute a "straight" kick at any given moment. In order 
to perform some of the offensive leg techniques from the lead leg, the Thai boxer 
rapidly switches to the opposite stance (where the lead leg becomes the rear leg 
and vice versa) beforehand so that the technique is given maximum leverage for 
maximum power. Leg techniques delivered from the rear leg will be much more 
powerful than from the lead leg. The footwork prevents the legs from being 
crossed during combat as doing so places the element of risk to the Thai boxer in 
terms of balance. 



177 



STEPPING MOVEMENTS 


BACKWARD 
(direct) 


Move rear leg straight behind. Lead leg follows it while maintaining basic 

fighting stance. 


BACKWARD 
(alternating) 


Move lead leg backward while keeping your rear leg at the same position. 
The feet and entire body should be in the opposite stance. 


FORWARD 
(direct) 


Move lead leg straight ahead. Rear leg follows it while maintaining basic 

fighting stance. 


FORWARD 
(alternating) 


Move rear leg forward while keeping your lead leg at the same position. 
The feet and entire body should be in the opposite stance. 


LEFTWARD 
(direct) 


Move left leg to the left. Other leg follows it while maintaining the basic 

fighting stance. 


LEFTWARD 
(circling the 
opponent) 


FROM RIGHT-LEAD (or "SOUTHPAW") STANCE, move rear leg 
backwards and to the left. Lead leg follows it while maintaining basic 
fighting stance. FROM LEFT-LEAD STANCE, move lead leg forwards 
and to the left. Rear leg follows it while maintaining basic fighting stance. 


RIGHTWARD 
(direct) 


Move right leg to the right. Other leg follows it while maintaining the basic 

fighting stance. 


RIGHTWARD 
(circling the 
opponent) 


FROM RIGHT-LEAD (or "SOUTHPAW") STANCE, move lead leg 
forwards and to the right. Rear leg follows it while maintaining basic 
fighting stance. FROM LEFT-LEAD STANCE, move rear leg backwards 
and to the right. Lead leg follows it while maintaining basic fighting 

stance. 



178 



TURNING MOVEMENTS 

B=Backward CW=Clockwise CCW= Counterclockwise F=Forward L=Leftward R=Rightward 


DIRECTION 


from LEFT-LEAD STANCE 


from RIGHT-LEAD (or 
"SOUTHPAW") STANCE 


CW 
(90 degrees): 


Turn the entire body 90 degrees R by 
pivoting on the balls of both feet. The 
right leg should be in lead. 


Change to LEFT-LEAD STANCE by 
either moving the left leg F or right leg B 
and turn the entire body 90 degrees R by 

pivoting on the balls of both feet. The 
right leg should be in lead. 


CW&L 
(180 degrees): 


Move the right leg 2 shoulder widths 
to the left and turn the entire body 
CW 180 degrees by pivoting on the 
balls of both feet. Your right leg 
should be in lead. 


Change to LEFT-LEAD STANCE by 
either moving the left leg F or right leg B. 

Follow same instructions as listed from 
LEFT-LEAD STANCE for CW & L (180 
degrees). 


CW&R 
(180 degrees): 


Move left leg 2 shoulder widths to the 

right and turn the entire body CW 180 

degrees by pivoting on the balls of 

both feet. Your right leg should be in 

i i 

lead. 


Spin the left leg around the right leg 2 
shoulder lengths F and 2 shoulder widths 
to the right and turn the entire body CW 
180 degrees by pivoting on the balls of 
both feet. Your right leg is acting like the 
axis of a wheel and should still be in lead. 


ccw 

(90 degrees): 


Change to SOUTHPAW STANCE by 
either moving the left leg B or right 

leg F and turn the entire body 90 
degrees L by pivoting on the balls of 
both feet. The left leg should be in 
lead. 


Turn the entire body 90 degrees L by 
pivoting on the balls of both feet. The left 
leg should be in lead. 


CCW&L 
(180 degrees): 


Spin the right leg around the left leg 2 
shoulder lengths F and 2 shoulder 
widths to the left and turn the entire 
body CCW 180 degrees by pivoting 
on the balls of both feet. Your left leg 
is acting like the axis of a wheel and 
should still be in lead. 


Move the right leg 2 shoulder widths to 
the left and turn the entire body CCW 180 
degrees by pivoting on the balls of both 
feet. Your left leg should be in lead. 


CCW&R 
(180 degrees): 


Change to SOUTHPAW STANCE by 
either moving the left leg B or right 
leg F. Follow same instructions as 
listed from SOUTHPAW STANCE 
for CCW & R (180 degrees). 


Move left leg 2 shoulder widths to the 
right and turn the entire body CCW 180 
degrees by pivoting on the balls of both 
feet. Your left leg should be in lead. 



179 



Defensive Head Movements 



Just a short insight to cover the most basic head motions. 

SLIP: You place your head over one of your knees by bending that knee. Causes 
your body to "lean" that direction and you therefore "slip" the punch. 

SIT: Bend your knees and drop straight down. Gets your head underneath a punch 
or kick. 

LEAN: Lean backwards away from a strike. I personally only recommend doing 
this to avoid a kick. If you lean backwards during an "onslaught" by your 
opponent, then you will be unable to defend or counterattack effectively. 

BOB N ? WEAVE: Sit and step to the side at the same time. Not only gets you out 
of harms way, but puts you at a superior angle offensively and defensively. 

A few tips regarding Head Motion in Muay Thai: 

1 . Always use your LEGS to perform the head motion, not the hips or waist. Keep 
your body upright and your eyes forward. You have to be able to see what is 
happening and if you bow over, you will become a victim of a knee, rising kick, 
any variety of hand techniques. 

2. In my opinion, SLIPPING in Muay Thai is the most important head motion to 
learn, followed by LEANING away from high roundhouse kicks. SITTING and 
BOB N f WEAVE head motions are inherently risky due to knees and kicks. 

3. Always remember, each gym is different. The names for these techniques are 
not always the same, and are taught and used differently depending on where you 
are. I may not like certain head motions for Muay Thai, but another gym may be 
able to teach and use them effectively in their fight game. 



180 



Kicking When It Is Too Close To Kick 



There are three ways you can approach this issue. I would recommend discussing 
the options with your trainer to find out what they recommend. There may be a 
particular skill set they want you to master first before branching out into a bunch 
of different variables. 

However, these are the three options I would toy around with: 

1. STEP SIDEWAYS- as you suggested yourself. You will not lose any power, 
but it will take practice to step and time the impact of the kick for maximum effect. 

2. STEP BACK- You were dead wrong on this one, my friend. This is actually the 
one I recommend doing, but hear me out. When I recommend that you step back, I 
mean that I recommend that you perform the J/C/RK combo using a broken 
rhythm. 

In other words, throw the jab and cross, then step back to set for the kick, then step 
back in with a proper round kick. It is better to practice doing each individual 
technique correctly than to rush through and force a combo. 

I drill my students on this all the time. Don't throw a technique unless you are "set" 
to throw it. If you force it, you will be off balance and throw a sloppy technique 
that will be easily defended, ineffective, and leave you open for a counter attack. 

There is also a way to step back AS you kick. I refer to this as a "Fade Away" kick. 
I have only recently begun teaching my current crop of students this kick. If you 
are in too tight to effectively kick, step backwards as you launch the kick. Again, 
this is something that will take practice, but can be extremely effective, as I have 
found that the ability to kick your opponent from what is normally considered 
clinching distance is a very effective skill. 

3. BENT-LEGGED KICKS: Rather than stepping to put yourself at the correct 
range/distance to your intended target, bend your leg to compensate instead. I use 
this method hand-in-hand with the "Fade Away" kick mentioned above. Bent- 
legged kicks are surprisingly powerful, especially the more you practice them. The 
key thing is to make sure that even though you are bending your leg, make sure 
that you continue to drive with your hip with this kick. It is easy to screw this 
technique up and throw a weak kick. 

As I said above, you really need to consult your trainer before you try to use any of 
these techniques because these may be skills that they don't want you to learn yet. 

However, if your trainer gives you the go-ahead to try them, I would recommend 
practicing them in this order: 



181 



1. STEP BACK/SET/STEP FORWARD AGAIN WITH KICK 



2. SIDEWAYS STEP 

3. BENT-LEGGED KICK 

4. STEP BACK/FADE AWAY KICK 

I forgot to address part of the scenario you gave. Throwing multiple kicks. If you 
find yourself too close after your first kick, you are moving in the wrong direction 
as you kick. From the sounds of it, you are continuing to shuffle forwards with 
each kick, which brings you ever closer to your target so that you eventually jam 
your own kick. 

Throw the jab-cross. As you throw these two punches, you typically will move 
forward. 

BUT, after throwing these two punches, you should shuffle back into position for 
the round kick, then step at the ANGLE, or SIDEWAYS to set up for your multiple 
kicks. 

Since you are trying to throw 3 kicks, you should probably move sideways, and 
after each kick, come back to position and then continue to "shuffle" sideways with 
each kick. 

The different methods of executing the kick I mentioned in my initial post don't 
*exactly* fit the scenario you were referring to, but they are still the main ways 
that I teach to deal with/compensate for distancing as you kick. 



182 



Going "Dirty" 



Thai boxers are known for being extremely respectful outside of the ring. You will 
never see a Thai boxer bad-mouthing his opponent(s) like you see in the Western 
Boxing world. Thai's believe in doing all their "talking" in the ring, letting their 
fighting speak for them. 

Below, I've listed a number of techniques that are considered "dirty pool", but are 
still ring legal. 

J\bl- When a mid-body level kick comes, you can trap and spike it with your 
elbow. 

JVs2- When clinching your opponent, get your glove into his face and cover his 
nose and mouth so that he has difficulty breathing. 

J\b3- Also, while clinching, use your chin to dig into your opponents face, 
especially the eyes. Thai boxers like to enter the ring with a few days razor stubble 
for two reasons. One, the stubble helps punches, elbows, etc slip off the face, and 
two, to dig it into their opponents face. 

JV®4- Again, during the clinch (notice a trend?), when fighting for control of an 
opponents neck/head, or defending from having your head pulled down, you can 
reach across his face and jam your elbow into it. Use your elbow/arm as a stiff 
barrier, keeping it in his face. Dig it into his nose or eyes or mouth... 

J\b5- Again, while clinched, you can wrap your leg around your opponent and heel 
kick him in the back of the leg or buttocks. 

JV26- Throw a haymaker-like punch, but hit him with the bony part of the wrist 
rather than the fist. This is a good knockout technique because the wrist/forearm 
area is not protected with boxing gloves. 

JW7- Like boxing, it is illegal to hit an opponent who is down. However, if the 
opponent has not hit the floor yet... I have seen many fights ended when an 
opponent gets that extra kick or even a knee in before their opponent hits the floor 
after they have thrown or dumped them. 

JV28- Push Kicking opponent in the face. This is the most insulting thing you can 
do in the ring. You would not make a Thai as angry if you said very explicitly 
derogatory remarks about his parents. In Thai culture (and many Asian cultures) 
the head is considered the most important part of the body (practically holy!), the 
feet the lowliest. To push kick them in the face is to say that you are beneath the 



183 



dirt under my feet. When a Thai push kicks to someone's face, he does not strike 
with it, rather he brushes his opponents face with it, heightening the insult factor. 

As you can see, Thai's like to play for keeps. However, they keep it in the ring. The 
above techniques are all legal in the ring, but considered to be "dirty pool". Most 
fighters refrain from using them, as they can expect like treatment if they do. As an 
interesting note along the same idea, this is why many, many Thai fighters rarely 
ever use elbows in the ring. There is sort of a "gentleman's agreement" amongst 
boxers that if you do not use elbows, neither will I. If you do, however, expect like 
in return. 



184 



Muay Thai: Throws and Takedowns 



In the sport of Muay Thai, you do not often see a competitor throw his opponent to 
the canvas during a bout. This is because in most cases, takedowns and throws are 
not legal in Muay Thai. 

There are however, situations where you can legally perform a takedown or throw 
in the ring, and I will outline below the basic takedowns and throws of Muay Thai. 

TAKEDOWNS: 

In Muay Thai, takedowns are typically sweeps. There are many different ways to 
get a sweep on your opponent, but there is one important thing to keep in mind: 
You may not perform a sweep or takedown by throwing the opponent over any 
part of your body. 

What this means is that hooking-style sweeps and hip throws are not to be used. If 
you "sweep" someone's leg, it must be done using a roundhouse style kick. 

That being said, the most common takedown in Muay Thai is after catching an 
opponent's roundhouse kick, you kick their support leg out from under them. 

This can also be accomplished by kicking their support leg out from under them 
without catching their support leg. This requires excellent timing, but as start to 
kick, you will kick to the inside of their support leg at the same time, taking them 
off of their feet. 

Another takedown, which I don't see used often enough, is the push kick. 
Unfortunately, the push kick is rarely utilized to its fullest benefit in the ring. 
Someone who masters the push kick can easily knock an opponent off of their feet 
with a well-timed kick to their opponents hip. The most opportune time is when 
your opponent begins a roundhouse kick, push kick him in the hip on the same side 
he is kicking from. Done correctly, your opponent is going down. Their is a Thai 
phrase to describe the body motion made by the falling boxer, which describes the 
motion made by a fisherman casting his nets. The falling fighter spins in a very 
similar fashion. 

This next takedown is rare (I've only seen it once), and may have been a fluke, but 
I once saw Rambah step in close and knee his opponents thigh without clinching. 
His opponent's leg went out from under him and he dropped like a sack or wet 
rice. 

THROWS: 

As mentioned, throwing an opponent over any part of your body (ala Judo) is 
illegal in Thai boxing. There are two basic throws we teach in my gym. 



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When clinching, I have mentioned how you turn your opponent like a steering 
wheel to take him off-balance to counter his knee strikes. Well, take this same 
technique a step further and take him to the ground. Performed correctly, your 
opponent can actually go down performing a cartwheel. 

With all due respect, the best example I can think of is when Kit Songrit fought 
Rick "the Jet" Roufous. For those of you who are familiar with the match and have 
seen the tape, Kit Songrit spun Rick to the ground midway through the 3rd round (I 
think it was that round) and lost 3 points for a major foul (there was apparently a 
HUGE language barrier problem and Kit Songrit and his corner were unclear on 
the rules of the match. At least, that's their official version of the story). However, 
you could not ask to see that throw performed with more precision than that. A 
textbook-perfect throw. When a throw is performed in the Muay Thai ring, this is 
the most typical one seen. 

The atypical throw seen in Muay Thai is the Belly-to-Belly Suplex. OK, it isn't 
really that, but we refer to it that way b/c it is a belly-to-belly throw. When you are 
clinched with your opponent, you grab him around the torso and hug him tight, 
then lift and throw him sideways. The beginning of the throw is identical to a true 
suplex, but rather than throw yourself with your opponent to the ground, you 
release. The object is to break the clinch and get your opponent off of you. Your 
opponent will not always fall to the ground due to this throw, but you do get him or 
her off of you. 

Well, that's essentially it. Their are subtle variations of course which I don't believe 
I need to describe. You get the idea, that's enough. . . 



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Clinch (Prumb) 



Clinch or PRUMB in Muay Thai terms is one of the most distinctive features of 
Muay Thai fight. If you want to become complete fighter you must know how to 
enter clinch, what to while clinching and how to exit clinch. 

I stress that when you enter a clinch, grab at your opponents arms first and pull 
down and across your knee. Throw a quick knee or two, THEN go for neck control. 

Do not wait until you have the control position to throw a knee. When you feel 
your balance is right and there is an opening, STRIKE! 

As you close in for the clinch, get in a straight knee strike on the way in! This may 
be the most important knee strike of the clinch exchange. It is doubtful that once 
you get to the inside fighting that you will always be successful at gaining the 
control position to fire off the devastating clinching straight knees. 

OFFENSIVE CLINCHING: 

I agree with Muay Thai tradition on entering with hand techniques, those work best 
in most cases, especially when you're at range to throw uppercuts and hooks. Its 
very easy to transition from a punch to a grab. We might as well include elbows in 
this category. 

You can also enter off of a roundhouse kick. Throw the roundhouse kick, but don't 
let it rebound. Drop it to the floor right at the point of impact, then step in, grab 
opponent's shoulder and pull him over a knee strike. 

DEFENSIVE CLINCHING: 

There are multitudes of defensive clinching scenarios. Essentially in each case, you 
smother your opponent's attack with the clinch. 

BOXING: Parry or block your opponent's shots as you step in for the clinch. 
Parrying and trapping are preferred against straight punches because you don't 
need to grab your opponent's head to begin kneeing. Grab/parry/trap your 
opponents arm and pull him across you knee as you fire one into him. 

For hooks and uppercuts, you will smother/block and grab for the neck. 

PUSH KICKS: Parry the push kick to the side and step in with the clinch. Grab for 
the neck. You can parry the kick to the inside or outside. 

For example, if you parry your opponents right-legged push kick to your right, you 
will be on his outside. He will be able to do little to counter you. But, your 



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clinching will be awkward and limited because of the angle you close in on him. 
The ref is likely to break you to prevent an injury. 

If you block his right-legged kick to the left, you are now on his inside. You have a 
much better angle to get some solid knees in, but he will be in a much better 
position to counter you. 

ROUNDKICKS: You can block, catch, or "pass" the kick to close for the clinch. 

To clinch off of a blocked roundhouse kick is self explanatory. Block the kick, 
then as your opponent recovers, step in for the clinch. I would advise going for the 
neck in this case, but don't ignore the arm-clinch if its there. 

If you catch/trap your opponents kick, reach in and grab his lead shoulder and pull 
him over your knee. Then fire away. Give him one or two before dropping the leg 
and going for complete neck control. 

To "pass" the kick is to block/parry the kick. This only works for mid-body and 
high kicks. If your opponent throws a right-legged roundkick at your ribs, your left 
arm stays in TIGHT to your body, (elbow to the ribs, wrist/hand to the jaw). As the 
kick impacts, your right arm reaches over top of the kick and grabs the leg. You 
then perform a very slight backward movement and "scoop" the kick through to 
your right, directing it at the floor. 

This will hopefully prevent your opponent from using the momentum to spin back 
around into his fighting stance to defend. You step in and grab him. Again, you 
will be grabbing from the side/rear and the ref may break the clinch. 

Again, these are not the only methods to close for the clinch, but just some of the 
most common ones that I teach. 

There are often times when two opponents have a "Clinch Receptive" match, 
where both fighters just step in and clinch with each other. There is no setup, they 
just step in and do it. In cases such as this, I teach my fighters to stand up as tall as 
they can, on their tiptoes, and reach DEEP with their lead hand while using their 
rear hand to parry their opponent's grab. 

Remember, the person who has the "high ground" in a clinch has the advantage. 

The one thing Muay Thai tradition tells us is to LET THE CLINCH HAPPEN. You 
cannot force it or you will get hurt. You should also always go in with one arm 
first while protecting your face with the other. Circle off to the side while 
exploding you forearm into your opponent's chest and neck. Cup the back off the 
head and snap his head towards you using a jerking motion with your lats and 
biceps. Then enter with the other arm and take plum, constantly moving your 



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opponent and firing weapons while jerking his head in and out and moving him 
around. 

Clinching Basics 

For those with grappling experience, you will find this similar to "swimming". 
That is where you practice getting a control position by "swimming" one arm in at 
a time under your opponents arms to get the underneath control position for a 
throw or the like. 

In Thai, the phrase or name used to describe clinching is translated as ''GETTING 
DRESSED" (think of it as "preparing to knee") 

"Getting Dressed" is the action of your and your opponent "swimming" or snaking 
your arms inside for the control position. The second your feel your opponent 
move an arm to the inside, you should move your arm to regain the inside. 

The difference is, rather than gaining the control position under the arms for a 
throw, you are trying to gain the inside position on your opponent's head/neck area. 

There are variations on the control position, 111 discuss the most basic one that I 
teach. The position you want is to have both of your hands/arms to the inside, 
grasping your opponents head/neck in a pincher-like grip, and his head trapped to 
your chest. You can also rest your chin on the top of his head to KEEP his head 
down. 

When clinching, the hand position should be on the back/top portion of your 
opponent's head, not the back of his neck. Keep the elbows locked in TIGHT to 
pinch the carotid arteries, and to prevent your opponent from snaking his hands 
back in to gain the inside position on you. (the pincher grip on the carotids is not 
enough to make someone pass out, but it is enough to make them feel a little faint 
or light-headed, and any advantage is a good advantage) 

The hands themselves can be held in two recommended ways. You can either cross 
them at the wrist (both palms towards you), or you can cross them with the palms 
towards each other. Remember, do not interlace your fingers! You will have 
boxing gloves on! 

With your arms in the correct position, your elbows should be pressing into your 
opponents collar bone. Use this to your advantage, as a fulcrum to pull their head 
down into your chest. 

When you begin to clinch with someone, you should try to "gain the high ground." 
Try to get over top of your opponent first so that you have the high position. This 
way you can rest your weight on your opponent, forcing them to work harder. I 
teach my students to use their lead hand to reach high and deep to get the upper 



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position, and their rear hand to deflect the opponent's hands so that they cannot get 
a good grip on you. 

I also teach my students to grab with the lead hand and apply the clinch with just 
that hand. To do this, after you grab behind the opponents neck/head, you push the 
elbow across to the center of their chest and use the upper arm as a wedge between 
you and him. This leaves one hand free to punch, elbow, or deal with whatever he's 
trying to do with his hands. You can use the lead hand clinch to throw your 
opponent off balance, and then knee as he's vulnerable. 

While "getting dressed" it is recommended to actually keep your chin up! Any 
other time, you would keep your chin down, but while clinching, if you have your 
head tucked, it's easier for your opponent to trap your head. 

When clinching, get up on your tippy toes to help get you over top your opponent 
so you can get the upper position. Once you achieve the upper position, rest your 
weight on them. Make him hold you up! 

While "getting dressed", only "swim" one arm in at a time. Never "swim" both 
hands in at once. This would leave you with both hands off of the opponent, and 
allowing them to have the inside and get your head down. 

Also, while "getting dressed", keep your hips glued as tightly to your opponent's 
hips as possible!!! Do not leave room for a knee to get in. When you "feel" that 
you are in position to knee, break your hips to the back and fire one (or more) in 
there, then get your hips back against his! 

MOVE AROUND!!! Do not stand in place and clinch, rather, CONSTANTLY bz on 
the move! Use your arms to toss your opponent around. Push on your opponent's 
shoulders/arms while pulling on his neck to throw him off balance, leaving him 
open for your knee strikes. Try to throw the opponent to the ground if you can! 
(and KICK him as he falls!) 

If you are having trouble with getting the upper control position on your opponent, 
grab around his body and hug him close. From this position, you can break your 
hips to the back and throw clinching curve knees. 

If your opponent has grabbed you around the body and pulled you too tight to 
break your hips back to knee, grab each of his arms in a guillotine-like hold, 
trapping them, then push forward hard with your shoulders (dig your chin into his 
face, neck, collar bone) and push your hips back hard also, then attack his legs and 
hips with clinching curve knees. 

If your arms are trapped in this manner, push forward with one, pull back with the 
other HARD. Once you have one arm free, grab him by the neck and start pulling 
down and try to get in your own knee strikes. 



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Clinch Swing Knee Strikes 



Remember, when you throw these knees that you have to thrust your hips back to 
make enough room for you to make contact with your knee bone rather than your 
thigh. Your opponent is going to try to smother your knees by crowding in close 
with his hips, so you have to break your hips out to the rear to create the room. 

Also, when doing this, try to snap your two knees together. Snap the striking knee 
into your other knee. 

And, add a little hop so that your support foot pivots. You want to strike 
THROUGH the target with your knee. 

I have my students do a drill where they stand in front of one another and hold 
each others shoulders. They take turns throwing these strikes in-between each 
other so that the knees just miss their partner. They have to hop/pivot so that the 
knee strike passes all the way through to the other side. 

Clinch Knee Strikes Defense 

The first method: SIDESTEPPING, is a very good technique. When you are in a 
clinch, you aren't going to be sidestepping a technique. Your opponent HAS HOLD 
OF YOU! You aren't going anywhere! What was really meant is a combination of 
manipulating your opponent while utilizing footwork to throw him off balance, 
thereby nullifying the knee attack. 

When in the clinch, you and your opponent are fighting for control of each others 
head. Ideally, you want to have your opponent's head in a pincher grip, with your 
forearms on his collarbone, and your heads behind the back/top portion of his head. 
Using your forearms as a fulcrum, you pull his head down into your chest, bending 
him over in front of you. From this position, you are able to throw straight knees at 
will into his abdomen, chest, and face. 

However, one of the first things any Thai boxing instructor who's worth studying 
under will teach you is how NOT to get caught like that, and if you DO get caught, 
how to get out of it. Most serious injuries in Muay Thai that I have witnessed are 
due to a fighter insufficiently dealing with being at the business end of the clinch. 
Believe me, a knee to the face is quite ugly to witness. (Stop the fight, bring in a 
mop. You get the idea...) 

Now, since most fighters are well enough versed in the clinch to NOT get bent over 
in front of you, you therefore have to knee while fighting for the advantage. When 
you find yourself with sufficient balance and enough room to snap one in there, 
you do it. 



191 



When you are holding onto an opponent in the clinching manner, you don't have to 
see what they are doing. You can actually feel it. When you feel your opponent 
shift their weight to knee, you twist their upper body by pulling with one hand, 
pushing with the other. While doing this, you are sidestepping. 

To clarify this technique, let's say while you are clinched, the opponent is trying to 
knee you with his right knee. You should pull downwards and to the side on his 
neck with your right hand, while pushing him up and forwards with your left. You 
are essentially trying to turn him like a steering wheel. As you turn him, step at an 
angle backwards (the "sidestep" previously mentioned) with your right foot. As 
you twist your opponent around 180 degrees, your right foot becomes the lead foot, 
and the left foot becomes the rear foot. Since your opponent is being pulled over to 
his left and off balance, his right ribs are exposed to your left knee. You know 
what to do. 

The other technique is to scoop the leg. I don't teach this method for a few reasons: 

J\bl-it leaves your scooping arm tied up with his weight on it. Both of his hand are 
free to punch, elbow, whatever. 

JV22-to scoop an opponent's leg in this fashion, you are taking a big risk of eating 
the knee in the process. 

This is a legitimate technique if you are studying for self defense. But it is not for 
Muay Thai competition. 

Let's get back to basics however. I wanted to comment on those two methods of 
defense first, since they were previously mentioned, but now I want to backtrack. 

First, when clinching with someone and preparing for the knee, keep in mind that 
your opponent will be trying to knee you also. You should therefore keep your hips 
GLUED to your opponent. The best defense against knees is to be too close for 
your opponent to knee. Remember to keep your stance wide to keep your balance. 

Another thing to keep in mind is that normally when boxing, Thai boxing, or 
whatever, you should keep your chin down to your chest to prevent KO's. 
However, while clinched, if you keep your head bowed down, you are doing half 
of your opponents work for him. So in this case, keep your chin up. Practice 
keeping the shoulders up high and almost arching the back of the neck so that your 
opponent cannot pull your head down. 

If you are in a clinch with someone that has superior clinch skills to yours, then 
you can wrap a leg around him to make sure he cannot create the room to knee 
you. While doing this, kick him with your heel in the back of his legs to frog them, 
(yes, this is a legal technique!) 



192 



You can also wrap one arm around the back of his head so that the back of his head 
is in the crook of your arm. The opposite arm grabs in the crook of his arm and 
pulls down. Turn sideways and raise your lead side knee into his body sideways, so 
that your instep is extended on one side of his hips, the knee on the other (the 
shinbone should be parallel to the ground). Push forward with your knee into his 
hips while pulling on his head and arm with your upper body. You will get him 
"stretched out" and unable to do anything. From this position, you can either 
release and get back to the clinch so that you have an advantage, or wait for the 
referee to break the two of you up. 

Another escape from the clinch that I teach is to do a double hand push on your 
opponent's hips while ducking out. THIS TECHNIQUE IS VERY RISKY, AND 
SHOUID ONIYBE USED ASA EAST RESORT!!! Many people make the mistake 
of simply trying to duck under the persons clinch to get out. However, this is the 
cause of the really ugly injuries that I mentioned before. If you find yourself forced 
to escape this way, push HARD on both of your opponents hips while doing your 
best to keep your head safely tucked between them. The injuries that I have seen 
are because fighters have tried to just duck out of a clinch without the double- 
handed push. 

Basic Clinch Counters 

Now for the basic counters. The first three are for when there is some space and the 
last five are more for when it's tight. 

l.Swimming: this is just the basic arm weaving motion that everyone teaches. I 
break it down as follows: 

A. Clear your elbow. A common mistake is to simply slip your hand inside and 
reach for the neck. This becomes difficult because your forearm is trying to force 
his elbow out the way. Of course he feels that and braces his elbow against the 
center of your chest making it next to impossible to complete the basic swim 
(unless your tricky). To avoid that, move your hand and elbow inside before you 
reach for the neck. 

B. Confirm your grip on the back of his head with a short abrupt tug and. ... 

C. Push your shoulder into the center. Think of trying smash his nose with your 
shoulder. If you do it right it will feel like your shoulder just pops out from under 
his forearm. If you don't do this, the fact that you got your hand onto the back of 
his neck doesn't mean a whole lot because he's still controlling both of your 
shoulder with his forearms. 

D. Repeat above with opposite arm. 



193 



2. Chin lift/press: Reach diagonally over and across your opponent's arms and cup 
the top of his shoulder. Lever his chin upward with your forearm and push him 
away to create space. Next, swim the other arm in and grab the back of his neck. 
Finally, swim inside with the arm that was levering his chin. The press is exactly 
the same movement but his chin is down making it hard to slide your forearm 
under it. When this occurs push your hand/forearm across his face/chin turning his 
head to the side and cup over top his shoulder. Finish as before. 

3. Two variations on the crowbar: 

A. Near arm: I usually move to this when my opponent moves his elbow inward to 
block the basic swim but you could also just go directly into it. Reach inside with 
your right hand and as he blocks by turning the elbow inward, reach across his 
body and cup over top of his right bicep. As you do this it is important to shrug 
your shoulders up so you partially trap his left arm between your neck and right 
shoulder. Now lever his left arm upward by lifting your right elbow up and rotate 
your right shoulder forward. If you do it right your opponent will feel a slight 
shoulder wrench on the left side. Finalize by swimming the left hand in and then 
the right. 

B. The far arm: Brett already described this one. The only thing I would add is to 
shrug your shoulders up to control the arm more. 

The next five escapes work well when your opponent has pulled you tight with the 
neck tie-up. 

4. The pinch: 

In this escape your opponent has pulled your head down against his chest. 
Assuming his head is on your left side, grab the back of his head with your left 
hand and shrug your right shoulder to control his hand. With your right hand (palm 
up) push inward and up on his left triceps/elbow while driving his head down. The 
movement feels like your trying to pinch his head and elbow together and is very 
uncomfortable for your opponent. If you get this position he cannot effectively 
knee you while you can knee freely or transfer to another control tie-up position. 

5. Elbow Fold: 

From a tight neck tie-up reach under both arms with your right hand and cup the 
outside of his right arm near the bend of his elbow. Pull his elbow inward and 
rotate your left shoulder forward pressing your chest against his arm. At the same 
time wrap your left arm around his shoulders (like your trying to headlock him). At 
this point his right arm is pretty much useless as it bent at an awkward angle and 
smashed up against his chest. Knee or transition to another control position. 



194 



The next three all begin with the same motion and footwork. 

6. Head tilt: 

In this escape your opponent has pulled your head down against his chest. For this 
description, assume his head is on the right side of yours. Place your left foot 
between his legs and move hips as close as possible to his. With your right hand 
reach over top of his head (your right hand and fingers should be draped over his 
head with the your fingers extending downward toward his right ear). Swing your 
right leg around behind you and pull down hard on your opponent's head with your 
right hand to pivot his body to your right. The motion of your pull should be a 
wide arc from the position of his head toward your right hip. The sideward pull of 
his head combined with the pivot generally causes his right elbow to flare outward 
just enough that you can swim your left arm inside. 

7. Elbow lift: 

This is the same as the last one but as you pivot the opponent around you place the 
heel of your left hand under his right elbow and lever it out and up. Knee or 
transition to another control position. Commonly this movement is used to 
transition into the head and arm tie-up. 

8. Head press: 

Similar to the previous two only as you pivot you feel that he's not as stable as he 
should be. Continue the arc of his head and push it down between his arms with 
both hands as you step backward (pulling him toward you). When you finish his 
head should lower than yours. Even though he still has his hands in the neck tie-up 
position because his head is being pressed down he doesn't have any leverage to 
control you. Upward knee to the face is the most common follow up. 

After students have a good grasp of the basic movements I start to teach variations 
and combinations of the eight basic techniques. Some of the variations seem 
different than the basic escapes but they are based on the concepts/principles that 
are learned through the basics. Remember that nothing works well by itself. If your 
playing around with these movements in sparring think about attacking with them 
in combinations while adding various knee attacks, your basic movement skills 
(pushing, pulling, turning), and takedowns. If you can do that you will find all of 
these techniques open to you and your clinch skills will soar. 

Also, keep in mind that the neck tie-up is not the end all and be all of the Thai 
clinch. There are many other control tie-up positions available and other areas of 
interest as well - such as takedowns. 



195 



Cro-bar Clinch Escape In Detail 



Say your opponent has inside head control with both his hands behind your head. 
Take your right arm and go over his left arm and under his right arm. Take your 
left hand and grab your right hand and push up thereby creating space under his 
right arm. Take your left hand and slide it where space was created by the push. 
Work your left hand back up behind your opponents neck and try to get belly to 
belly. 

I escape from the clinch by posting on his hip with my left arm. This keeps 
distance and keeps his momentum moving back so knees aren't a huge threat as 
you escape. Slide your right arm under his left and grab his right bicep. Your right 
elbow should be under his left elbow. You now have a fulcrum and a lever. Shoot 
your elbow straight up. The clinch is broken. 

Before beginning any of the basic defenses below it is best to partially control the 
opponent's body in some way. I always emphasize the importance of keeping at 
least one hand on your opponent at all times (which is one of the reasons I don't 
prefer the far arm crowbar). When you have at least one hand on your opponent 
you maximize your ability to push or pull him off balance when he attempts to 
knee or elbow you; and you reduce the chance that he can quickly disengage and 
punch/kick you while your still thinking about his arms. How you attach yourself 
to your opponent depends on what control tie-up he's using and where your 
positioned. For the neck tie-up typically you'll do one of the following: 

l.Hug over the top of his shoulders and grab behind his neck. 

2. One hand over the shoulders the other controlling his hip(s). 

3. One hand across his neck monitoring his shoulder (ex: right hand on right 
shoulder). 

4. Hugging the body 

5. Variations and fluid combinations of the above. 



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Exiting The Clinch 



Exiting the clinch. I really do not like using the shovel punch method because I 
find that you end up leaving yourself open. Either that or the "Shoeshine" method 
isn't being properly described. 

But it all depends on what position you are in when you are trying to exit the clinch 
in the first place. Your position determines what methods you can safely employ to 
break. 

DOMINANT: You are in the dominant position. You have your opponents head 
trapped to your chest. This is easy. There are essentially three main "exits" from 
this clinch that I teach. 

1. Push your opponent off of you, following with a few high roundhouse kicks to 
the head. 

2. Rather than push your opponent away, simply release your hold and follow with 
a flurry of short hooks (both sides) to your opponent's head. 

3. Dump your opponent on the ground with a legal throw. The throw that I am 
thinking of is what I refer to as the "Steering Wheel". You grab behind your 
opponents neck with one hand, push on his shoulder or under his elbow with the 
other hand, step back and spin him to the ground. 

EQUAL FOOTING: Neither you or your opponent has the upper hand in the 
clinch, but you want to break away anyway. 

1. Probably the best method is to push your opponent off of you. As you are 
"getting dressed", you push HARD on his shoulder/s rather than go for neck 
control. This should get him off of you. 

2. Or, you can break from clinching with some elbows. Again, rather than fight for 
neck control, start throwing some short, tight elbows. This could backfire if your 
opponent defends by trying to smother you with a tighter clinch. If you succeed in 
breaking the clinch, you can follow up with punches and kicks as your opponent 
steps back. Of course, this method will depend on whether or not elbows are 
allowed in your match. 

3. Also, see the above throw mentioned in the DOMINANT control exits. This 
same throw applies to the "stalemated clinch". 

The throw is probably the BEST clinch escape from a stalemated clinch, followed 
by the push, and last, the elbow attack escape. 



197 



OPPONENT DOMINANT: You find yourself where you don't want to be, your 
head is in control and your opponent is trying to light you up with clinching 
straight knees. 

1. Don't EVER just duck out of this clinch! ! ! The whole event will grind to a halt as 
they bring in a mop to clean what's left of your nose off the canvas. I am NOT 
joking. I've seen this happen more times than I care to discuss. 

2. The first thing your should do is get as close to your opponent as you can. Keep 
your hips glued to his. Grab around his body and hold him tight so that he has no 
room to knee. 

3. From the tight position, you can then try to stand up straight and arch your back. 
You may be able to break your opponents hold just enough for you to be able to 
snake your hand back in and fight for neck control. 

4. Or, just bring and arm over top and get your forearm/glove into his neck/face 
and push back. This will be very uncomfortable to your opponent and can cause 
him to break his hold just enough for you to snake a hand back in... 

5. Or, snake one hand over his arm, then back under his other arm. Then push up 
with your hand and down with your elbow. This is called the "Crowbar Escape" as 
you are using your arm as a lever. 

6. The Knee Shield. Get one arm around the back of your opponent's head so that 
the nape of his neck is in the crook of your arm. With your other arm, grab on his 
arm in the crook of his elbow and pull down on it. Raise your knee into your 
opponent's abdomen and use this as a shield. Push the knee into your opponent's 
abdomen as you pull back with your head. The referee should step in at this point 
and break the action if you are able to hold this and you don't transition to another 
escape method. 

7. The Knee Escape. Same as above, but when you raise your knee, turn your body 
sideways, and turn your knee/leg sideways so that your shin is across your 
opponent's abdomen. Your knee should be by the opponent's hip on one side, and 
the top of your foot "hooking" his hip on the other side. Again, you push forward 
with you knee/shin and pull back with your shoulders/head. This will get your 
opponent nice and stretched out. 

For those of you familiar with Jiu-Jitsu, and the triangle choke. This is similar to 
how you "stretch" your opponent out prior to applying the hold, when you have 
hold of his sleeve and pull while pushing into his hip with your foot. 

Again, if the way it was described was correct, I am adamantly opposed to the 
"Shoeshine" method. Think about it: If your opponent has control of your head, 



198 



and you try to break with punches to his abdomen, while he is firing away with 
straight knees, who do you think is going to win? 



199 



Look Mai Muay 



Look Mai Muay Thai means the movements of using Muay Thai Art, which are 
divided from Mae Mai. Look Mai Muay Thai has more details of tricks. Before 
practice them the trainees must have the experiences of Mae Mai Muay Thai. The 
old qualifications teachers had divided Look Mai Muay Thai to 15 Mai. 



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LOOK MAI 15 Mai 



ERAWAH SUEY NGA 




Throws the punch up to the chin or throws the uppercut to the chin 



This complimentary technique is similar to the master trick of Mae Mai Muay Thai, the sixth 
technique or the sixth movement which named TA THEN KHAM FAK 

The attacker throws the straight left punch to the defensive's face and steps with the left foot 
forwards while guarding. The chin with the right fist The defensive sways the body to the left a 
little in order to escape from the attacker's left punch, at the same time throws the left punch 
passed through the attacker's guard then turns the body to the right and throws the fight upper 
cut to the attacker's chin. The defensive must try to sway the body and shoulder close to the 
attacker chest. 



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Grabs the punch and kick to the face 



The attacker throws the left punch and steps the left foot forwards while the right fist guards to 
chin. 

The defensive holds on the left punch and steps the left foot forwards. When the attacker 
moves the body in order to throw the straight right punch, the defensive must hurry to use the 
right fist to grab the attacker's left punch out to the right side of the defensive then hurries to 
throw the right kick to the attacker's chin or uses the front foot to pat on the attacker's face 
instead of kick to the chin, then swaying the body to the left weight on the tip of the right foot 
and guards to the chest by holding the both punches on. 



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The attacker throws the straight left punch and 



steps forwards while the chin remains guarded 
by the right fist 

The defensive hurries to step the right foot 
outside the attacker's left foot Raise the left arm 
to strike the elbow to brush the attacker's left 
arm. Then hurry to use that speed to move 
closer to the attacker and enfolds the middle of 
the body (near the wrest) of the attacker then lift 
him by the hip to throw his back down to the 
floor. This action may make the attacker very 
exhausted or his head may strike to the floor. 





Cover the elbow and uppercut to 
the chin 



This complimentary technique is use for 
defense again the attacker's elbow. 
The attacker steps forward to the 
defensive or move in to the body and 
raise the both elbows in order to strike on 
the head 

The defensive steps for-wards to the 
attack, raises the lower part of the arm 
parallel to the floor to defense the both 
elbows of the attacker and throws the 
opposite uppercut to the attacker's chin, 
then steps forwards to follow with the 
punch. 




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GR AISORH KHAM HUAI 




Escapes from the kick throws the straight kick and strikes the back leg 



This complimentary technique used for defense against technique named BATA LOOB PAK. 
The attacker jumps to kick at the defensive's chin by the method of throwing up the straight kick 
with the right foot. 

The defensive steps the left foots and jumps to escape from the attacker's right foot. Bends the 
body to the left side weight on the left foot then hurries to resort the right foot and kicks to back of 
the knee in order break it. 



KWAHG LIEW LANG 



Follows to kick and strikes with 
the heel 



There are two pits of this trick. 
Part one 
The defensive prepares to kick the 
attacker's rib, keeps on the both hands to 
guard the chin. 

The attacker holds the left or the right 
fist in the front, prepares to throw a kick 
at the defensive and steps forwards. 
Part two 

The attacker must step back in order to 
escape from the defensive's kick. 
The defensive hurries to turn back 
quickly by using the foot which had 
thrown in first for the main standing then 
turns back to use another foot strikes to 
the attacker's chin or the top of the chest. 




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Defends against the kick, rolls on the body and 
strikes the swinging back elbow 



The attacker launches a right kick to the defensive's 
rib, weight on the left leg and protecting his face with his 
both hand guards. 

The defensive hurries to raise the upper part of the 
arm to prevent the attacker's kick. Then turns back and 
raise the left elbow parallel to the floor at the leved of 
the chin or the face and strikes while turning. 



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Bends the body ducks under the leg and strikes the knee-joint 



This complimentary technique is used for defense against the high kick. There are two parts. 

Part one 

The attacker kicks to the chin or the temple with the right foot. 

The defensive bends the body to pass under the attacker's right foot, which thrown to the neck 
to the head. 

Part two 

The attacker kicks with the right foot and misses the target, then the body turned by the 
straighten of that swinging kick. 

The defensive hurries to place the right foot and strikes to the attacker's left knee-joint which 
makes him fall down. 



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Passes to inside and throws the uppercut to the chin 



The attacker throws the left punch to the defensive's face and steps the left foot for wards while 
holding up the bent right arm to protect the chin 

The defensive sways the body to escape from the attacker's left punch and steps the left foot 
forwards close to the attacker. Turns to the left close too the attacker's chest then throws the both 
punches up to the attacker's chin (throws the uppercuts to the chin-Mud Soi Dao). 



207 



LOOK MAI 



This complimentary technique is used for defense against the trick of the kicks: then strikes the 
opponent. 

The attacker prepares to strike the left foot to Drag on the abdomen of the defensive or strike the 
abdomen. 

The defensive steps the right foot escaped to out side, Parries the attacker's foot with left hand 
and pounces on the attacker's in step. Then thrusts a power full kick to the attacker's knee-joint 
with right foot. Sway the body the right, the weight's on the left foot. 



208 



THAYAE KHAKI MO 




Escapes the kick and the back leg 



The attacker kicks the defensive's rib with the right foot, swaying the body while the weight's on 
the left foot. Holds on the both fists to protect oneself. 

The defensive is quick to bend the the body to the right and raises the foot to spun at the 
attacker's thigh with the heel, the weight's on the defensive's right leg. 



209 



HOHG PEEK HAK 




Escapes inside and strikes the elbow to the arm 



The attacker throws the straight right punch to the defensive's face and steps the left foot 
forwards while holding on the left punch to guard the chin. 

The defensive steps very quickly closed to the attacker's body, Parries away the attacker's right 
fist with the left fist. At the same time hurry to strike the right elbow passed very close to the ear 
to the middle of the upper part of the right arm (elbow). 



SAK PHUANG MALM 



Escapes inside and strikes the 
elbow to the chest 



The attacker throws the straight fist 
to the defensive's face, steps the left 
foot forwards and holds on the right fist 
to guard the chin. 

The defensive steps to the attacker 
bend the body in the attacker's arm. 
Parries Away the attacker's left arm with 
the right fist. Then strikes the left elbow 
to the attacker's chest. Repeats this 
action many times. 




210 



THEN KWAD LAN 



Kick 



The attacker kicks with the left foot or 
stands with both feet. 
The defensive walks in forwards and 
bends the body down to escape from 
the left foots which kicking pass over the 
head. Then throws the power full kick 
with the right foot to the attacker's right 
instep. If the boxer stands with both 
feet, kicks to the front leg. 




FAN LOOK SUAB 




211 



Basic Combinations 



I believe that as in instructor, I should only teach very basic combinations. Two to 
three strikes each. Rarely, 111 teach a four technique combination (and the two that 
I do teach are both boxing combo's, not Muay Thai). 

Instead, I try to teach my students to follow up each technique with something. 
Actually, I try to teach them to follow up each technique with a few somethings. 

Let's use boxing as an example. After I throw a left hook, there are a couple of 
very specific actions I will take, depending on the situation. My two most common 
follow ups are: 

1- Bob and Weave out to the left 

2- Right Cross 

To continue on the same line of thought, I will follow each of those techniques up 
with some very specific actions. For example, if I were to Bob and Weave to the 
left, I would probably do one of the following: 

1- Left Hook to the body 

2- Clinch (as I straighten myself back up) and Straight Knee ot the body 
OR, if I threw the Right Cross, I would most likely follow with: 

1- another Left Hook 

2- Right-legged Roundhouse Kick to the body 

3- Clinching Straight Knee to the body 

As you can see, each technique I perform has a follow up, and each follow up 
technique has a follow up, and so on. This is how techniques get strung together 
into combinations. 

So, in essence, I will teach my students simple combinations, such as Jab-Cross- 
Roundhouse Kick, or Jab-Cross-Clinching Straight Knee, and then let them build 
upon the technique to make their own "advanced combinations". 

Moving right along, we can now discuss Basic Combinations. 

As a note, my students are all (with maybe 3 exceptions) beginners. The two basic 
combo's that I drill them on CONSTANTLY are the ones that I have already 
mentioned above: 

1 . Jab-Cross-Roundhouse Kick 

2. Jab-Cross-Clinching Straight Knee 



212 



JMbl- The Jab-Cross-Roundhouse Kick is especially what I (and most people I 
have trained with) consider to be the "bread and butter" combination of Muay 
Thai. In truth, it is the "bread and butter" combo of all the striking arts (except 
Western Boxing) that I have studied. 

I teach this combo two ways. Continuous Rhythm and Broken Rhythm. 

For the Continuous Rhythm, the three techniques are thrown rapidly is succession 
with no pause. Also, the roundhouse kick is thrown from the rear side (the same 
side you threw the cross from) If you were to practice this using Muay Thai 
technique, you will notice that throwing a strong right cross makes your 
roundhouse kick weak. To compensate, we teach that the cross is thrown as a feint 
so that the Roundhouse Kick can be thrown with full power. The "cross" is thrown 
directly into your opponents face AND LEFT THERE! Keep the hand in his eyes so 
that they cannot see the kick. With the opponents vision obscured, you can then 
choose which target seems most open. Thigh, hip, ribs, or even the head. When 
first starting to practice this technique, keep the kicks waist and below until you get 
the timing. You can then start practicing higher kicks. 

For the Broken Rhythm Combo, the Jab and the Cross are both thrown with full 
power, then you come back to position, usually shuffling back a step into optimal 
kicking range. From here, you can throw a Roundhouse Kick with either leg, 
depending on your opponents reaction to your punching combo. Again, practice it 
with a low kick at first, then when comfortable, try kicking higher targets. 

JNb2- Jab-Cross-Clinching Straight Knee. This combo is pretty self explanatory, I 
think. Important note however! A common thing I have noticed is that most people 
studying Muay Thai are so conditioned to clinch an opponent by the neck, that they 
never take advantage of another clinching option. CLINCH THE OPPONENTS 
GUARD! Instead of always trying to "swim" through his guard to get hold of his 
neck (and taking an elbow strike on the way in) grab his arms so that you "hook" 
them where the elbow is bent and pull him across your knee. Try this, you will be 
amazed at how effective it is. 

If you succeed in clinching with your opponents guard and delivering a straight 
knee, you can then move in closer and clinch the neck. 

These are two very simple, yet very effective combo's. Another simple combo is: 

J\b3 Push Kick-Roundhouse Kick: In this case, you are simply using the Push 
Kick as a gauging tool, so to speak. You use the Push Kick to kick your opponent 
right into your roundhouse kick range. 

JV24 Roundhouse Kick-(Skip back)-Push Kick: This one is a little more 
specialized, but not too hard. You execute a roundhouse kick first, skip backwards 



213 



to create the room you need, then skip back in with a Push Kick as your opponent 
tries to follow you. 

In practice, you should try to make it a three beat rhythm, meaning the Kick is one, 
skipping back with both feet is two, and the push kick is three. Your feet should 
only touch the floor on those beats. To explain further, after landing the roundkick, 
you should SKIP back with one hop. Do not shuffle your feet going back b/c you 
need to be QUICK (your opponent will be stepping into you!). When you hop 
back, you should make sure you hop back enough to allow you the room to push 
kick an approaching target. After hopping back, you hop back in and Push Kick at 
the same time. 

DO NOTSHUFFIE IN AS YOU PUSH KICK! Many people, when they push kick, 
step forward with their rear leg, then push kick. NO NO NO! That kills your 
forward momentum. The push kick should be practiced so that when executed, you 
are getting double impact! In other words, the push kick is mostly used to stop an 
encroaching opponent. Double the impact by hopping into him at the same time as 
the kick. To get the double impact, hop in and kick AT THE SAME TIME! 

J\b5 Another simple yet deadly favorite: 

Clinching Straight Knee (with opponent's guard, not neck)-Diagonal Elbow 
Strike. 

Well, as I'm sure everyone can imagine, there are a myriad of simple combinations 
that you can put together. Then, if you practice following each individual 
technique with some action, your simple combo's will begin to lead into one 
another creating your own personal advanced combo's. 



214 



More Combinations 



A list of 10 basic combo's. 

JV2I- Jab-Cross-Lead Horizontal Elbow 

JV22- Jab-Cross-Roundhouse Kick (The kick can be performed with either leg) 
J\b3- Jab-Cross-Clinching Straight Knee (either Knee) 

J\b4- Roundhouse Kick-Straight Punch (though I prefer a Lead side kick and a 
Cross, you can throw either kick with either punch. You can also substitute a hook 
from either side) 

JV25- Clinching Straight Knee-Hook (right after landing the knee, release you 
grip on your opponents head and immediately hook when your kneeing foot sets 
back to the floor. This should catch him before he gets his guard back up) 

JV26- Clinching Straight Knee-(push opponent away)-Round Kick (the idea here 
is to push your opponent away into kicking range, and while he's trying to regain 
his stance and guard up, you can kick him in the head or wherever is open) 

JW7- Push Kick-Round Kick (like above, use the Push Kick to get your opponent 
at Round Kick range and unload!) 

JV28- Roundhouse Kick-Clinching Straight Knee (after landing the Round Kick, 
set foot down in front of you and step in, grab, and knee. Don't retract your leg 
after kicking) 

J\b9- Roundhouse Kick-Elbow (essentially, use the same footwork as above, but 
strike with the elbow instead of the knee. OR! If your opponent moves out of the 
way of the Roundhouse Kick, allow your leg to partially spin you around into a 
Spinning Elbow Strike. When you miss with a kick, your opponent will often try to 
step in on you, right into the Elbow Strike! ! !) 

JV2IO- Roundhouse Kick-(skip back)-Push Kick (as mentioned before, make sure 
you skip back with both feet at the same time, then skip in at once with the push 
kick. DO NOT STUTTER STEP! This needs to be FAST! Try to make it happen in 
three steps, or beats. Round Kick, skip back, Push Kick. There should only be 
those three steps and none in between!) 



215 



Training Drills, Conditioning and etc. 



Training Drills 

To start off with, I feel that three things go into making a complete fighter. 
Technique, Physical Fitness, and Heart. Your instructor/coach can only help you 
with the first two. We have already discussed a lot of technique, so moving right 
along... 

Physical Fitness and Stamina: 

Anyone who fights competitively, or competes at sports in general can tell you that 
being physically fit can make or break you. Besides learning and practicing the 
techniques of your MA, you have to train to be able to do them, and keep doing 
them, even if you are tired, exhausted, hurt, etc. 

JVsl-RUN. To tell the truth, there is no exercise I hate more than running. But, I 
can also honestly say that there is no exercise that takes its place (and believe me, 
I've tried MANY). If you want to be able to fight, you have to run, run, run. You 
should have a mix between jogging for distance and wind sprints. 

J\b2-SEE JMbl ! Yes! Running is THAT important! 

Besides running, there are a number of drills that we incorporate into our training 
to help build strength and stamina. 

DUCKWALKING or SQUATS: How do you think that Thai boxers are able to 
withstand those leg kicks? 

FOOTWORK DRILLS: A circle drill that I incorporate from the boxing gym. The 
students get in a circle as though they are in the ring (we don't have a ring at either 
of our gyms) and they skip sideways as though they are dancing around their 
opponent. The students are to stay on their toes! When the coach (me!) says 
"SWITCH" they change directions and go the other way. This should get them 
used to always circling around their opponents, and how to change directions 
quickly, (there's more to the drill than just that, but I don't feel like getting into it 
right now, sorry) 

JUMP ROPE: helps with stamina, and teaches boxers to be light on their feet, (if 
they do it right) 

PUSHUPS and SIT-UPS: This is a no brainer... 

MEDICINE BALL: has a myriad of uses. Strength, coordination, and impact drills. 



216 



NECK ROLLS: This is very similar to the wrestling exercise. Do a three point 
stance with your feet on the ground and your head too. Arms behind your back. 
Slowly roll your neck around to work the neck muscles. For god's sake though, be 
careful on this one until you are used to it... 

WEIGHTS: There are a number of very specific weight drills for punching power. 
Most of them concentrate on the shoulders and triceps. One drill is to take a non- 
weighted bar with both hands and pump it in and out from your chest (straight out 
while standing) as fast as you can for one round. 



217 



Improving Punching Power 



There are a number of ways to increase your punching power. But, the most 
important way initially is to cultivate good form. 

In talking about good form, well start with alignment and work from there. 
Bone Alignment 

With good form, you derive your power from proper bone alignment. From there, 
any of the other key attributes you develop will just multiply this effect. This is not 
to blow my own horn, but I've knocked the wind out of people holding the heavy 
bag for me as I punched it. It came from proper alignment. 

Leverage 

It starts in your base. Many people neglect this. You need a pivoting, weight- 
shifting base if you want real follow-through punching power. This pivoting base 
is what transfers weight down at the feet and legs, which in turn sends the hip, 
which in turn sends the shoulder. When you throw a cross, for instance, turn your 
rear heel out (pivot on ball of foot), and shift your weight onto your front foot (toes 
pointing forward at this time). 

We Lose Leverage At Our Joints 

One of the most common faults in a person's punching technique (which results in 
lost power) is that POWER IS LOST IN THE JOINTS. This usually means the 
shoulder, elbow, or wrist. All bones function as perfect transmitters of force, but 
where one bone ends and another begins is where we tend to lose it. Misaligned, 
over-tensed, or under-tensed joints will vent off your power. People who wing 
their punches, for instance, will tend to lose power at the shoulder and elbow. 

People who bend their wrist when they hook, for another example, will tend to lose 
the power of that punch at the wrist. 

Never "Lock Out" Your Punches 

Power in a punch also comes from follow-through. You don't lock out your 
punches. Same goes for kicks (although they look "prettier" when you do them that 
way). I know a lot of classically trained martial arts teach you to lock out that 
"reverse punch", but I would differ on that methodology. I spent a lot of years in 
traditional martial arts, and I've spent a lot of years training around boxers and 
such. The latter hit much harder. A lot of it has to do with the follow-through 
allowed by a mobile, pivoting, weight-shifting, bent-knee base. 



218 



Muscle Grouping 

You need: 

Strong lats (pull-ups, seated row maching, shadowboxing, bag work, sparring). 

Strong shoulders and traps (upright rows, standing flyes, skipping rope, LOTS of 
shadowboxing, etc.). 

Strong Abs and Lower Back ~ for conveying hip torque to the sweep of the 
shoulders. 

Strong Quads and Calves ~ Legs and abs should be seen as a pyramid which 
generates your power and shifting. 

Strong Forearms ~ for keeping the wrist aligned, and for a dense fist (underrated 
aspect of power punching). Wrist curls, hand squeezers, fingertip pushups, etc. 

Secondarily: 

Strong Pectoralis Major ~ this can help in your power (projecting and aligning the 
shoulder of the punching arm) if you already have good form. People who start 
with large pec's, though, tend to throw shoulder punches (like a bench press). No 
real power there. 

You DON'T need: 

Strong Biceps ~ these do NOT add to your straight punching power, and only help 
in holding the angle of the elbow in your hook, and drawing it in on the end (that's 
the french curve I talked about before). Same for the uppercut. People with huge 
biceps are usually the easiest ones to slip. 

Relax 

I always tell my students that "tension" is the opposite of everything good or 
favorable in your performance. Tension is the opposite of speed. Tension is the 
opposite of POWER. Tension is the opposite of nontelegraphy. Tension is also the 
opposite of mobility. Tension is a drain on endurance. 

In the case of punching power, which is the subject at hand, it is TENSION IN THE 
SHOULDERS that most often diminishes not only one's power, but also one's 
ability to land the punch on an opponent ~ because of its effect on the 
aforementioned aspects of a successful punch (speed, nontelegraphy, mobility, 
etc.). 



219 



The Body Is What Punches, Not Just The Arm 

When you hit someone, it should feel like a piano fell out of a second story 
window and hit him on the end of your fist. This is in keeping with info provided 
earlier in this post about shifting the weight, etc. The reason why you're shifting 
your weight is SO THAT HE FEELS YOUR WEIGHT IN YOUR PUNCH. There's a 
Thai saying that a person who really knows how to hit moves fluidly but his touch 
is as heavy as a mountain. Sounds like good boxing to me. If your weight is settled 
on your feet, then that mass is not going into the punches. 

Tight Fist 

At the tail end of execution, the last place you can either add or lose power in a 
punch is in your fist itself. It should stay loose through most of your execution and 
tighten up just before impact. 

The Snap - The Right Time and Place 

The power of your punch is right on the end, where it snaps. This is true of ALL 
punches ~ not just your linear punches. The art of punching then becomes the art 
of coordinating your own body mechanics (which is most of what I've talked about 
here) with the placement of your target AT PRECISELY THE RIGHT RANGE AT 
THE RIGHT TIME, where you hit target as your punch is snapping on the end. 
When you don't get this right, your power is either jammed because the range and 
timing weren't right, or it falls short or misses for the same reasons. 

This, by the way, is one of several ways in which KEY attributes come together to 
equal success in your hitting. As far as the above paragraph, you get this ability 
from essentially two areas of training: sparring and fighting. Partner drilling will 
never in a million years give you this ability. Secondarily, you can get some 
aspects of this ability from focus mitt training and the top and bottom bag ~ in 
both cases because they simulate either the chaos or the predictable flow of 
sparring and fighting, where through timing and range you get your punches to 
meet up with the target properly. 

There's more to this, in general, as far as learning to punch with power is 
concerned. Much of it, though, is difficult to convey in text. Much easier to show. 

One last point for you, is that you have to develop your kinesthetic perception if 
you really want to be able to hit with power. There is a correct sequence of 
muscular contractions for every punch, every kick, which happens very quickly in 
rapid succession. In addition to contractions, there is a correct series of RELEASES 
(very important) ~ i.e. when a certain muscle in the chain has done its job, and 
now needs to let go before it starts to hinder your function. 



220 



Favorite Drills 



One of our favorite drills is called 10-20-10 f s. Full speed and full power. Partner 
holds Thai Pads and you kick 10 Roundhouse on one side, then 20 Clinching 
Straight Knees, then another 10 Roundhouse on the other side. 

We also used to have a competition to see who could do the most round kicks or 
straight knees in one round. The catch is that it's during shadowboxing. No target! 
We haven't used that drill in awhile. 

The Elbow Train is just doing Horizontal or Vertical Elbow strikes on the focus 
mitts as fast as you can (alternate sides each strike). If you do it fast enough, it 
starts to sound like a train chugging along... 

Neck Wrestling is a big drill. You "get dressed" (English-Thai translation of 
Clinching) with your opponent, each of you trying to gain the "control" position, 
with your opponents head trapped to your chest and they are bent over. If you get 
caught, you have to perform an escape. 

Fun with the Medicine Ball: I like to have my students play Harlem Globetrotters 
with it. They pass the ball around for a few rounds like they are playing basketball. 
OR, I have them stand close and actually thrust the ball into each others stomachs 
or ribs. OR BETTER YET (I love this drill...) With a partner. Both put on 
bag/sparring gloves. One holds the med. ball while the other uses it as a punching 
bag. The holder is responsible for changing the target area around. The puncher 
just must punch full power constantly. You do this drill for about 3 rounds 
alternating punching/holding every round. If one student drops the ball, they do 20 
push ups per drop. So the puncher should be trying to punch the ball out of the 
holders hands. 

Another personal favorite: Progressive combo's. The idea is to work a combo from 
it's first strike and build it into at least 6 separate strikes, preferably 8 or more. Start 
with one strike. Repeat 10X. Then add another strike. Repeat 10X, add another, 
repeat 10X, etc. For example: 10 jabs, 10 double jabs, 10 dbl jabs and a cross, 10 
jab- jab-cross-hook-bob n'weave, 10 jab-jab-cross-hook-bob n'weave-cross, etc, 
etc, etc. (don't forget to add kicks, knees, elbows, etc. I just used boxing as an 
example) 

Those are some of the more creative ones. Most of the drills are pretty standard. 
Kick or punch the pads, shadow boxing, pushups, sit-ups, skip rope, etc. 



221 



Medicine Ball Drills 



This is not a very complete list, as the drills are endless. Heck, they have entire 
books and videos devoted to this. For those of you who just want a few effective, 
simple drills, this is for you... 

Drill J\bl- Everyone stands in a circle, close together. Hand the medicine ball 
around in a circle, changing directions occasionally. When you hand the ball 
around, do not simply "hand" it to the person next to you, but thrust it into their 
abdomen. Aim for the abs or obliques. The person being handed to should allow 
the ball to impact with their abdomen, then take the ball. DO NOT CATCH THE 
BALL BEFORE IT HITS YOU! 

Drill JNb2- Again, in a circle, play Harlem Globetrotters with the medicine ball. 
The circle is more spread out this time, and the boxers should be getting some "air" 
under the ball. They should be throwing it up in the air, not straight into their 
partners chests. In this drill, if the medicine ball is dropped, the whole group does 
10 pushups for each time the ball is dropped. 

Drill J\b3- Sit-ups, with a partner. Boxer 1 does a sit-up, and is then handed a 
Medicine ball while in the "up" position. He hold medicine ball outstretched above 
head and then does another sit-up, handing the medicine ball back to his partner. 
He then does another sit-up, at the end of which he gets the ball again. Essentially, 
he is doing every other sit-up with the medicine ball. 

Drill J\b4- With a partner, standing back to back. Stand far enough apart so that 
there is enough room to hand the ball between you two. Boxer JV2I twists to right 
(keeping feet planted) and hands ball to Boxer N°2, who is also twisted around to 
the right. Boxer N°2 takes medicine ball and then twists around to left and hands 
ball to Boxer N2I, who should now also be twisted around to the left. Repeat... 

Drill J\b5- 1 like to knee the medicine ball up in the air in front of me as though it 
were a soccer ball. My students think I'm nuts though. I will eventually have them 
do this drill themselves. 

Drill JV26- Drop the medicine ball on boxers stomach in the midst of sit-ups. Boxer 
should do a sit-up, and while in the down position, partner drops ball onto his 
stomach. Be careful not to drop in on boxers lap or sternum. 

Drill J\b7- Have boxer perform a V-Sit or Leg Raise. While holding that position, 
hit boxer in abs and obliques with medicine ball. Be careful doing this with your 
beginners. Start off softly, then build up power to find your boxers "threshold". 

Drill JV28- Personal Favorite of mine from the boxing gym. Both boxers wear 
gloves/bag gloves (I recommend thick bag gloves, not thin ones. Like Ringside's 
Super Bag Gloves. Just make sure they are thick gloves). This drill should be done 



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for 3 rounds apiece, meaning a total of 6 rounds. Boxer JV2I hold the medicine ball 
around chest height, Boxer N°2 boxes with the ball as though it were a heavy bag. 
Boxer N2I (the ball holder) should change positions of the ball to create different 
angles and punch levels, and should use footwork to do the same. Force Boxer N°2 
(the puncher) to move around a lot. Switch the ball between each round. If any 
boxer drops the ball, that boxer (not his partner) must do 10-20 pushups for each 
time the ball is dropped. 10 pushups for beginners, 20 for advanced boxers and 
fighters. 

Drill J\b9- With the medicine ball on the ground in front of you. Set the round 
clock with 30 second intervals. Start with the round clock by jumping over the 
medicine ball front and back. Get the knees up high towards your chest! Keep this 
up until the interval timer sounds, then switch by jumping side to side. Again, 
jump with the knees up high to your chest. At next interval, back to front and back. 
Keep switching from front/back to side/side. 



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Neck Wrestling Drills 



For 3 rounds, with a partner. 

When the round starts, you begin Clinching/Neck Wrestling with your partner. I 
had the interval timer set to go off every 15 see's. When the interval timer sounded, 
the fighters were to break, step back, then jump right back in and Clinch/Neck 
Wrestle again. 

Due to the size differences in my class, I had every one stay with the same partner 
for the entire 3 rounds. I think that in the future, I will have everyone switch 
partners between rounds. 

While clinching, the boxers are to be trying to get the Control Position that I have 
mentioned previously, where you have your opponents head trapped in a pincher- 
like grip to your chest. You can place your chin on top of their head as an extra 
measure of control. 

The boxers, should they get caught in the Control Position, perform and escape. 
Then they should get right back at it. 

Remember, if you try this drill, as soon as the fighters separate, they should 
immediately get right back at it. No pausing. The fighters should train as though 
the break is from the Ref separating them, then telling them to fight again. They 
should jump right back into it... 



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Thai Pad Drills 



For those of you who are interested in picking up your own, I recommend one of 
these following brands: 

1. Thaismai 

2. Twins 

3. Fairtex 

4. Vut 

5. Windy 

6. Siam 

7. Ringside 

Some of these are Thai brands, and I am unsure of their availability in Europe and 
USA. 

No matter what pads you get, try to find ones with velcro straps. They are so much 
more user friendly! 

A few notes about using the pads first: 

1 . Grasp the pads so that your palm is towards your opponent, not towards your 
face. 

2. When you are the pad holder, stand in your normal stance, facing your 
opponent. DO NOT STAND SIDEWAYS TO PRESENT THE TARGET! The 
Thai pads are designed so that the boxer can train realistically against a 
human opponent. Stand in your normal boxing stance, and then adjust to the 
attack as it is thrown. This way, the pad holder also gets experience reacting 
to attacks. 

3. When holding for kicks, hold the pads parallel and rotate to face the kick as 
it is coming so that the kick can impact both pads flush. 

4. When holding for knees, many people hold the pads parallel in front of 
them, as if they are crossing their arms. I prefer to have my students hold the 
pads in an "X" or crossed. It is a more stable way to hold them. 

5. When holding the pads for ANY technique, you must create a SOLID target 
for your opponent to hit. Do not hold the pads lazily so that there is no 
impact. It will do nothing for your training partner, and besides, if you hold 
them weakly, the pads can be kicked into your own face. I have seen many 
black eyes, bloody noses and lips b/c people are not holding the pads 
correctly. When the strike comes, press the pads into the hit to create a solid 
impact. 

6. A good Pad Holder will push their opponent to exhaustion. After a session 
of pad drills, the attacker should be ready to puke! 



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On to the drills... 
Kicking Drills: 

For one, you can have the kicker alternate kicks for an entire round. Left-right-left- 
right... The kicker needs to keep up a good solid pace. Do not rest in between 
unless necessary! Don't be lazy! Most of the time, when holding pads for round 
kicks, you hold them at mid body level. Even if you use Thai-style kicks mainly to 
attack the legs, you will benefit from practicing them higher, as it requires you to 
work harder. 

Multiple kicks on one side can be practiced also. The kicker should kick repeatedly 
from one side. In between kicks, the kicking foot should only lightly touch to the 
floor before kicking again. The kicker should stay leaned away to facilitate the 
multiple kicks. 

Low kicks can be practiced by holding the Thai pad against your thigh. Dangle it 
over your thigh while standing in your normal boxing stance. Make sure to push 
away the top part of the pad into the kick to help absorb the kick. Do not hold it 
flush, or you will not be able to take more than 3 or 4 kicks. It is advised not to use 
buckled Thai pads for this drill as the buckles will gouge your flesh. 

Boxing/Elbow Drills: 

Use them essentially the same way you use focus mitts. 
Knee Drills: 

As mentioned, I recommend crossing the pads in an "X" while holding for knee 
strikes for better, more solid impact. 

Again, by round. Have the boxer practice free standing straight knees, or clinch 
knees. The boxer should do a skipping footwork to alternate knees. For instance, if 
I just kneed with my right, as my right foot drops to the floor, the left skips 
backwards to load up the left knee. Again, you can also drill multiple knees on the 
same side. Instead of dropping the knee to the front, bring it all the way back, 
continually loading for the next knee. 

Push Kick Drills: 

Thai pads are NOT conducive to Push Kick Drills. Either allow the attacker to push 
kick you, or invest in a belly protector. If you invest in a belly protector, stick to 
the above brands and try to find velcro straps. 

The drills mentioned above are just very basic guidelines. Now let's get to the meat 
of it. 



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The pad holder has a great deal of responsibility to the person attacking, as the pad 
holder dictates the pace of the workout. You should push the attacker. If your 
attacker is slacking or lollygagging, hit them with the pad, or throw a kick and 
demand that they get to work. Constantly push them and shout out directions for 
them. Also, constantly move around and change the range. Force the boxer to 
adjust and use footwork. DO NOT BE A STATIC TARGET!!! 

For example, the drills already mentioned are only working one given technique at 
a time. Change directions and the range so that the boxer is forced to constantly 
adjust to get the technique right. If they are slacking, tell them to strike harder or 
faster. TAUNT THEM! Tell them that they are weak! Tell them that you expect to 
feel the pain in the morning! 

Keeping in mind all of the above advice for the pad holder, let's move on to 
combination drills... 

When directing combination drills, the pad holder should vary between having the 
attacker execute the techniques/combo's for power, or for speed. Do not change in 
the middle of the round. The round is either a power or speed round. In most cases, 
the pad holder dictates what combo's are to be used. When holding the pads for 
combo's, use your imagination. Try to add variety, but not too much that the boxer 
does not get a good dose of the basics. 

If you have an attacker who is very good, you can just hold the targets for the 
boxer to hit, as the boxer should learn over time what strike you want based on 
what position you are holding the pads in. 

With fighters, or fight hopefuls, a drill I like to do is to "suit up" wearing belly 
protector, shin pads, lacrosse elbow pads, thai pads, and headgear, (cup and 
mouthpiece, too) Again, I call the combo's for full power. With all the gear on, the 
attacker can perform low kicks, and I, as the holder can also attack if the attacker 
starts to slack. Typically, stick to jabs, push kicks, and round kicks at your attacker 
to make sure that they stay busy and sharp. 

Finally, I will do some rounds where the fighter simply attacks in combo as he 
feels. It is my job to adjust to his attack. He can low kick, punch, clinch knee, 
elbow, whatever. Since I am completely covered in protective gear, I am 
minimizing the chance of an accident. This drill should be reserved for the most 
experienced students, who will be able to do this without injuring each other AND 
taking the drill seriously. 



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Build Explosiveness 



You want to develop the greatest amount of force in the shortest amount of time. 
You want to be EXPLOSIVE] 

Before you begin your development of explosiveness, you should first have a good 
2-3 months of strength training under your belt, especially for the lower body. 
Strength training for the lower body includes squats, both front & back, lunges 
(forward & side), romanian deadlifts, and leg presses. These movements will stress 
the ankle, knee and hip joints, which play a HUGE part in building explosiveness. 

Plyometrics 

Since the 1960 f s, the former Soviet Union has been practicing what we now call, 
Plyometrics. The Soviets had been successful in the use of Plyometrics in their 
training regimes. The results showed in jumping events. It wasn't until 1975, when 
Fred Wilt, former Olympic runner, used the term Plyometrics here in the United 
States. 

Yuri Verhoshansky could very well be call the "Father of Plyometrics". He has 
been the leading researcher and coach most recognized with the spread of 
Plyometrics. He also has be credited with most of the forms of Plyometric training 
that are used today! 

Here in the U.S., the acceptance of Plyometrics has been slow. Most coaches, until 
now, believed that it hindered, not helped performance. That reseasoning could be 
because they did not understand how to apply it to training. Over the years, 
Plyometrics has been used more and more by coaches due to its significant 
increase in speed & explosiveness. 

Now, if you've been following with me this far, you know that speed & 
explosiveness are essential in Muay Thai. Plyometric training incorporated into a 
workout schedule, is a MUSTl 

Plyometric Training Methods 

Before undertaking serious plyometric training, it is important that you first 
develop a strength base. Since the force developed in some types of explosive 
training can reach 20 times your body weight, it is easy to see why you must be 
strong enough to withstand such forces. This means that you must develop 
concentric, eccentric, and isometric strength since all three of these muscle 
exercise regimes are used in plyometrics (explosive training). 
When you start training you should first go on an all - round total body 
conditioning program. You should do exercises to develop all the muscles of the 
body and all the joints in all of their actions. This type of training should last 
between 1-3 months, depending upon your initial level of fitness. Once this 



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general base is well developed, you should then begin to do strength exercises 
which more closely duplicate the actual movements involved in your sport(s), 
including plyometrics. The more specific the exercises, the greater will be the 
effectiveness of your workouts. 

The development of explosive strength is more complex, and four methods are 
used. They are: 

• exercises with weights 

• jump exercises (which up to this time have comprised the more popular 
concept of plyometric training) 

• the hit (shock) method 

• specialized equipment 

Exercises With Weights 

Using approximately ONL Y 60-80 % of your absolute strength Plyometric training 
is the key to developing that explosiveness and speed. 

Exercises with weights are used to develop maximum absolute strength. Weight 
exercises are also used in combination with jump exercises or in series with them. 
One simple routine to develop explosive power is to assume a specific position and 
hold it for 3 - 5 seconds to develop isometric tension. Once the muscle is prepared, 
you explode in the opposite direction with maximum speed. For example, go into a 
squat and hold the bottom position, leap up as high and as quickly as possible. This 
helps to develop explosive legs. 

To develop explosive arms with this method, you can do an exercise such as lying 
on your back on a narrow bench holding a weighted medicine ball in your hands 
with the ball almost touching your chest. Hold for 4 - 5 seconds and then throw the 
ball upwards with maximum force. A barbell or dumbbells may be used instead of 
the medicine ball, with the obvious exception that you won't throw the weights. 

Jump Exercises 

Jump exercises are the simplest form of plyometrics. The jumps are usually done 
in series of approximately 10 jumps. They can be done on both legs or on single 
legs or alternating between legs. However, when first beginning you should 
ALWAYS do double leg jumps up until your legs (or arms) become accustomed to 
the jumping. Remember that the amount of eccentric force generated in a single leg 
jump is about twice that of a double leg jump and if your muscles are not prepared 
for this force, it may be injurious. 

Next in progression are series of jumps having different directions, jumping over 
various objects and jumping onto and off various objects. For example, you can 
jump sideways, then forward, and then backward. Or you can jump in a zigzag 



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fashion. It is also possible to jump with body turns so that you end up facing in 
different directions after you execute the jump. All body turns made while you are 
airborne. 

Jumping over objects becomes more effective than simple jumping because it 
forces you to jump a little higher, which, in turn, creates more force upon the 
landing. In turn, allowing for greater development, which, in time, allows you to 
jump even higher. Also, by jumping onto and off various objects it puts more 
variety into the program as well as exposing your nervous system to experience 
different amounts of force from the different jumps. This also provides for greater 
development. 

The Hit (shock) Method 

Next in the progression are altitude jumps, a term coined by Fred Wilt, which are 
an example of the hit or shock method. In essence, you step off from various 
heights and upon landing you undergo minimal flexion of the legs (or arms) which 
forces the muscle to stretch sharply and undergo maximum tension. This happens 
automatically and your mind is not involved in developing maximum tension. This 
is why this method is so effective. It produces a greater force than you would 
produce on your own. 

In general, for highly trained athletes with great absolute strength, the altitude 
jumps are done from a height of approximately 5-6 feet and more. When first 
beginning you should begin with low heights of approximately 2-3 feet and 
gradually work up to 6 feet or more. Studies have shown that jumping off from 
heights of 9 feet or more are counterproductive and the athletes are hesitant to 
jump from such heights. 

The main reason for using altitude jumps is to develop supermaximum strength, 
i.e., maximal eccentric strength. To do this, it is necessary to use exercises in 
which the muscles are forced, under the influence of significant external forces, to 
execute work in the eccentric range. The load must be such that it forces the 
muscles to contract at the upper limit of their supermaximal strength for a very 
brief period of time. 

In the altitude jump, upon landing from a height of 6 - 7 feet, the extensors of the 
ankle, knee and hip joints and the spine are forced to execute eccentric work under 
the influence of inertial forces. In these brief conditions the athlete develops the 
ability to display brief muscle tension during which the force reaches values that 
are fantastic at first glance. It fluctuates from 1500 - 3500 kg, i.e., they exceed your 
weight by 20 or more times. 

A person is not able to achieve such strength in other exercises, only in altitude 
jumps, which are excellent stimulators of muscle strength. The altitude jumps used 
for strength training must be done on soft gym mats or a well dug hole with sand. 
Altitude jumps in which the muscles under the influence of large external forces 



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execute only eccentric work. In eccentric work, there is maximum tension in the 
shortest time. This facilitates the growth of strength in eccentric and in concentric 
movements. 

Depth Jumps 

Depth jumps is the most popular and most effective method for the development of 
explosiveness. It is also the most effective method for developing the reactive 
ability of your neuromuscular system. When the muscle is stretched, it develops 
elastic strength. This not a metabolic process, it is purely physical. 
To execute depth jumps, you step off a box or bench set at a certain height so that 
you drop straight down. As soon as you hit the floor, you immediately jump 
straight upward or upward and forward, with as little bending of the legs as 
possible. All of the landing forces should be vertical so that they can create 
maximum loading on the muscles. 

Landing should take place on resilient mats such as gymnastic or wrestling mats. 
Also, in the landing you should land first on the balls of your feet and then on the 
whole foot, followed by the ankle, knee and hip joint flexion. Note that the amount 
of flexion should be minimal. The key to success in the depth jump is a maximum 
fast twitch from the eccentric contraction to the concentric. The faster the switch 
takes place, the greater the force produced and the greater will be the height of the 
take - off. 

To execute the depth jump explosively, you should start thinking about the take - 
off prior to the landing. In other words, prepare your body for the landing and take 
- off and do not just allow it to happen. To do this most effectively you must get 
yourself psyched for a maximally fast and forceful jump. 
Do not begin the jump up until after you land. You must allow the muscles time to 
sharply stretch and tense. 

The most effective height for the depth jump is between 30 - 40 inches. When first 
starting you should use a lower height until you get used to the mechanics of the 
depth jump. When your muscles are prepared, then go to a height between 30 - 40 
inches. As a general rule-of-thumb, your depth jump height should be no more than 
a foot above your vertical jumping ability. 

At a height of 30 - 40 inches, the amount of speed and strength is well balanced 
and you get the maximum effect of both of these physical qualities. If you increase 
the height from which you step off, then you would rely more on the strength 
component and if you lower the height, you will rely more on the speed 
component. By adjusting the height of the depth jump you can variably improve 
more strength or speed. 

Depth jumping from too high a height typically happens with beginning and 
intermediate athletes who usually function on the principle "more is better". 
Because of this, they increase the height to amounts that are beyond their 
capabilities to execute the jump effectively. When you jump from too high a 
height, there is too much flexion in the legs, which absorb most of the force of the 
landing, and thus there is very little force to propel you upward. You end up with a 



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weaker and lower jump. Jumping from too high a height also involves different 
take off mechanisms. 

It is also important to realize that it is most advantageous to execute depth jumps 
after adequate strength preparation. Because of the great forces involved, it is 
necessary to begin doing such exercises very gradually. Practice has shown that in 
most cases you should be able to squat 2.5 times your body weight before 
undertaking maximum depth jumps. You should also know that the after effect of 
the depth jump is maintained for about 6-8 days. Because of this, such jumps 
should be discontinued 10 - 14 days before competition. 
How often you jump is also important. For athletes who are well prepared 
physically, doing depth jumps three times a week is usually sufficient for most 
sports. Also, the number of depth jumps in one session should not be greater than 
40 times. For less physically prepared athletes, 20 - 30 repetitions of the jump one 
time per week is enough. 

Although there is some variability, depth jumps are executed in series (10 times 
from a lower height and 10 times from a slightly higher height). Two sets are done. 
In between each set you should do light running exercises and exercises for 
relaxation (stretching). 

Leg Explosiveness 

To build leg explosiveness you should train appropriately for the specifics of Muay 
Thai and the level you participate at. You do more stationary power jumping, using 
a double leg take-off. In this exercise you jump up as high as possible, reaching 
upward with your arms. If you are involved in a sport such as long jumping, then 
you can do bounding, which, in essence, is multiple hopping (like a kangaroo) for 
maximum distance. Use a double leg and single leg take-off. Repeat 5-7 times. 
Some of the more effective exercises are as follows: 

• Double leg hops in place (150 - 160 jumps/min) 

• Double leg jumps over 6-8 medicine balls placed at suitable distances for 
jumping over. If you want more height, keep the balls closer; if you want 
more forward movement, place the balls further apart. 

• Jumps for height with an approach run, including kicking a hanging object 

• Single leg jumps (hops) with forward movement 

• Single leg hops over 6-8 medicine balls (low obstacles) 

• Skips 

• Leaps (from one leg to the other up to 10) 

• Ankle jumps. The key is to keep your legs straight and use ONL Y ankles. 



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Change in Direction Jumps 

After developing confidence in your ability to do these jump exercises, you can 
then begin doing some jumps with changing directions. Some of the exercises that 
you can do are as follows: 

• Double leg hops forward. Prior to landing, turn 180 degrees so that when 
you land you face the position you took off from. Leap up again and make 
another 180 degree turn to again face forward. You can change body 
position with each jump or after several. 

• Side jumps. Jump to the left and then to the right, staying in the same basic 
position. 

• Side jumps over a medicine ball of other object. 

• Side jumps over a bench. 

• Zigzag jumps. Jump forward and to the left, then forward and to the right. 
Go for approximately 10 jumps. Repeat for 2 - 3 series. 

• Box jumps. Jump forward, to the right, to the rear and then to the left and 
repeat in the opposite direction. (Jump to each corner of a square traced on 
the ground.) 

Altitude Jumps (Plyometric Shock Method) 

Begin altitude jumps from about 5 f - T and gradually work up to 6 f - 9 f . One way 
you can gauge at which height you should be jumping is to look at the amount of 
flexion in the knee joint. If it gets less than 90 degrees, your jump height is too 
high. It is most effective if your knees bend very little to absorb the force of 
landing. You must not jump from such a height that it becomes necessary to 
descend into a full-squat position upon landing. You can begin doing depth jumps 
at this stage in your training. However, altitude jumps are NOT a prerequisite to 
depth jumps. You may wish to begin depth jumps right away without first doing 
altitude jumps. Here are some important guidelines for depth jumping: 

• Begin by stepping off a low box or chair and immediately after landing, 
jump upward for maximum height. Repeat 8-10 times for 2 - 3 sets. In 
time, gradually increase the height to between 30 - 40". 

• Step off a box, drop down, jump up and over 6 medicine balls laid out in a 
row. 

• Same thing but only jump over 3 medicine balls, and then jump over a low 
hurdle. 

• Same as above but after jumping over 3 medicine balls you jump for 
maximum height. 

• Straddle jumps. Stand between two benches placed long ways to you. Leap 
up and place one foot on each bench. Jump off, land between the benches 
and repeat. 



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• When your muscles are strong enough, execute a depth jump with one leg. 
Step down and immediately upon landing jump up and over 3 medicine balls 
laid out in a row. Use the same leg or alternate. 

• Depth jumps with a jump up to another box. Jump off to the floor, then up to 
other boxes of the same height. When familiar with these jumps, try 
alternating the height of the boxes. 

• Do several side jumps over a bench, followed by several forward jumps over 
benches. 

• Same as above. Add jumps onto higher objects for a total of 10 - 15 jumps. 

• Jump over a box but prior to landing turn your body 90 degrees so you land 
in a side facing position to the other box. Execute 2-3 side jumps and then 
execute another 90 degree turn to land facing forward or backward. 

• Single leg hop onto a box and single leg hop off onto the floor, followed by 
another jump on and off. 

• Stair jumps. Do forward and/or side jumps, taking 2-3 stairs at a time and 
move upwards as fast as possible. 

Jumping with Weights (Plyometric Exercises With Weights Method) 

Jump exercises with weights can also be done at this time (and some even earlier). 
For example, hold dumbbells in the hands and do squat jumps for 8 - 10 reps, 2-3 
sets. You can also do split squats with our without dumbbells in the hands or 
barbell ob the shoulders. The key in these two exercises is to jump as quickly and 
as high as possible. If holding weights in the hands or on the shoulders is not 
comfortable you can hang weights on the waist or wear a weighted belt. 
You can do short, fast jumps with the take-off on one or both legs and variants of 
the triple and quintuple jumps from place. In the "short" jumps the exercises are 
executed with maximum take-off power. 

Explosive Arms 

In general, the same progression is used for explosive arms as it is for explosive 
legs. First, you must begin with an all-round strength training for the shoulders and 
arms. Thus, for the upper body you should do exercises such as bench press, 
overhead presses, incline and decline presses, lateral arm raises, medial shoulder 
joint rotation, bicep curls, triceps extensions, supinations-pronations, ulna and 
radial flexion, and finger flexion. 

After getting a strong muscular base from these exercises, you can do combination 
exercises such as an isometric hold followed by an initial explosion in the 
beginning position. For example, when doing the bench press, hold the barbell 
close to your chest for a count of 5 and then maximally explode to raise the barbell. 
However, make sure the weight is heavy enough so that when you explode the bar 
will be slowing down and stop as your arms come to full extension. To ensure that 



234 



your arm is not moving explosively or very fast near the end of the range of 
motion, you should think of short, quick explosions. 

In addition, to develop more speed you can execute the exercises at a faster rate of 
execution but always with the barbell coming to a stop or being quickly reversed 
near the end of the range of motion. After this, you will be ready for "jumping" 
with the arms. 

" Jumping" With the Arms 

This can be done in several ways as follows: 

• Wheelbarrow walk. Have an assistant hold your legs up off the floor and you 
hop on your hands with small take-offs with double arms. 

• Push-up jumps. Assume the push-up position and leap up off the floor and 
then back to the push-up position. 

• Assume the push-up position. Push off the floor and leap up to a block 
approximately 4" high. As you improve in your ability to jump upward, 
jump up as high as you can, up to 1 ? - 2 f . 

• Arm jumps over objects. As you jump up and over the objects from a push- 
up position, your feet will slide so that your body is still in good position. 

• Jumps sideways over a low object. These are very short range sideward 
jumps from a push-up position. 

• Push-up jumps with a hand clap. From the push-up position jump up as high 
as possible and clap the hands. As you improve try to increase the number of 
claps that you can execute prior to landing. 

• Stair jumps. Assume the push-up position in front of a stairway. Jump up to 
the first step, get yourself set again, and jump up to the next step and so on. 
Go up about 4-5 steps. As you improve have a partner hold your feet as you 
jump up the flight of stairs. 

• Assume a push-up position on the floor wearing socks on your feet so they'll 
slide across the floor. Do a series of 5 - 10 jumps in a forward line. 

• Same as above. Instead of traveling in a forward line, go in a slightly zigzag 
line forward. 

Depth Jumps (Plyometric Shock Method) 

Assume a push-off position on the first step of a double modified staircase. Leap 
up, land in between the staircases and then immediately jump up onto the first or, if 
possible, second step. From the second step leap up, land on the floor, and explode 
up to the second or, if possible, third step. 

The depth jumps can also be done with a partner holding your feet. Assume a 
push-up position with a partner holding your feet and your hands on a box with the 
shoulders directly above. Jump down from the box, land, and immediately explode 
upward. Your partner keeps your legs up high enough so your body does not hit 



235 



the box. The boxes should not be so high that your body makes contact as you drop 
down. 

Medicine Ball Exercises (Plyometric Exercises With Weights Method) 

The catching and throwing of medicine balls can also be used to develop arms and 
upper body explosiveness. Some of the exercises that can be done are as follows: 

Chest Throw 

1 . Stand opposite a partner with feet shoulder width apart and knees slightly bent. 

2. Using both hands hold a medicine ball to your chest and throw it to your partner 
with a pushing action. 

3. The pass should be explosive as though you are pushing someone away from 
you. Avoid snapping you elbows however. 

4. Have your partner throw the ball back and repeat. You could also perform this 
drill against a wall. 

Overhead Throw 

1 . Stand opposite a partner with feet shoulder width apart and knees slightly bent. 

2. Hold a medicine ball above you head, arms fully extended. 

3. With your arms still extended stretch your arms backward to move the ball 
behind your head. Try not to arch your lower back too much. 

4. Throw the ball to your partner releasing it just behind or above your head. 

5. Have your partner throw the ball back and repeat. You could also perform this 
drill against a wall. 

Pullover throw 

1. Lying on your back with knees bent, have your partner stand about 10 feet away. 

2. Hold a medicine ball directly over your chest with your arms extended. 

3. With your arms still extended, lower the ball behind your head as far as you 
can... if you can touch the floor with the ball great! 

4. From this position throw ball forward toward your feet releasing it when your 
arms are over your chest and abdomen. 

5. Have your partner pass the ball back to you and repeat. 

Shot Put 

1 . Stand opposite a partner with feet shoulder width apart and knees slightly bent. 

2. Hold a medicine ball in your left hand. Place the back of your hand against the 
front of your left shoulder. The medicine ball should be facing your partner. 

3. Shot put the ball as forcefully as possible to your partner. Avoid snapping the 
elbows however. 



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4. Have your partner throw the ball back and repeat with your right arm. You could 
also perform this drill against a wall. 

Side Throw 

1 . Stand side on, with your partner about 20 feet to your left. Keeping feet shoulder 
width apart and knees bent place your right foot slightly in front of your left. 

2. Hold a medicine ball with both hands directly in front of you. Keep your arms 
extended and parallel to the floor. 

3. Swing ball as far to the right as is comfortable allowing your hips to turn with 
your arms. From this position... 

4. Immediately swing the ball to your left throwing the ball to your partner. 

5. Repeat for the desired number of repetitions and then repeat for the other side to 
complete one set. 

You can also use medicine balls to duplicate the isometric contraction and then an 
explosion. For example, hold a heavy medicine ball over and behind your head. 
Hold for 5 seconds and then throw upward and forward as forcefully as possible. 
The same can be done holding the ball in a sidearm, underhand, or 3/4 arm 
position. 



237 



Kicking Speed 



Key muscle groups for speed in kicking: gluteus medius, hip flexors, lower back, 
and abdominal obliques. Develop these muscles with side raises (foot never goes 
below one foot off the floor) and side lockout extensions. Lack of development in 
these areas is the reason why most people kick slowly, as they are responsible for 
the raising of the kicking leg, and the arching and torquing the occurs in the back, 
counter rotation of hips to shoulders, etc. This is a weak area in most people 
(martial artists included), and development of these muscles will also enhance your 
ability to escape inferior positions in grappling (as a side benefit). Do the side 
raises in 3 directions: side, 45 front, and straight back ~ while holding on to 
something at waist height with the opposite hand only (a table or counter). 

Light target training 

Hang a towel or rag from the ceiling in your training room. Vary the vertical level, 
and work multiple kicking angles in rapid succession. 

Lunging Kicks, The Race 

The key to attaining speed in your lunging lead leg kicks is to make sure you land 
the kick before your weight settles on the supporting foot. This will also help your 
power. Think of it as a race. Your lead leg is trying to kick before your supporting 
leg can bear weight. But. Don't bob or bounce. There should be no up and down 
motion. That's the trick. When you can do this, you'll be able to lunge horizontally 
like lightning. 

Think Fast 

The key to being fast is to think "fast". One of the first things I became known for 
in certain circles was my kicking speed. At tournaments, exhibitions, etc., people 
used to come up and ask me all the time how I could kick so fast. The easiest reply 
was, "Think fast, and you will be fast. Always insist of yourself that you move at 
top speed." 

Start At Full Speed, and Accelerate From There 

Another important concept that I always tell my students. Your first movement — 
at the very beginning ~ should be full speed. From there, you should be relaxed, 
and accelerate from there. This goes hand in hand with the previous item above, 
and is very difficult to do. But, it will help your speed and power tremendously if 
you practice and apply it. 



238 



Most people do not even realize that when they begin to move, they do so (either 
consciously or unconsciously) at a slower speed, so they can "build up" to top 
speed at full extension of a kick or punch. They do this so that their power reaches 
an apex at full extension. The problem, though, is that the opponent has eyes. He 
perceives this build-up, and makes it miss. 

Most people, if they start a kick at full speed, tend to peter out from that point 
onward, and the kick will have no power. This is why, once your kick starts off at 
full speed, it must accelerate from there ~ so that it has power. When it is not 
accelerating, it is not ^pushing off* of something. Acceleration is a major key to 
power (and some forms of leverage), since a kick when it is accelerating has mass 
behind it. When it is not accelerating, then it is out there on its own. 

The above tips should help you out in developing faster kicks without 
compromising good technique or power (major problems if you are not careful). 



239 



Training to Fight! 



OK, so you've been going to your Muay Thai classes for 2 or 3 nights a week for 
the last 6 months. You understand all your basics pretty well, and are confident 
with your combinations and with your sparring. You decide to take this to the next 
level... 

The first thing is that a fighter should have a MINIMUM of 6 weeks notice 
(meaning 6 weeks of training) before any bout. Recently, I passed up on the 
opportunity for my students to enter a competition because there was only 4 weeks 
notice. Sorry, 6 weeks notice or we're not coming... 

If you plan to fight, or are considering it, you must be ready to devote every day of 
your life for 6 full weeks to training. Well, actually six days each week. 

First, from day 1 until a few days before the fight, you should run EVERY SINGLE 
DAY! Even on your one day off, you should run. For the first 2 weeks, you should 
be jogging for distance. Devote at least 40 min's each day to roadwork. After the 
first two weeks, then start alternating between jogging for distance and running 
wind sprints. When I used to run my sprints, I'd run approx 30-40 yards sprinting, 
then I would turn around and run back slowly to cool down, then turn around and 
sprint again. I would repeat this about 5 times my first time out, then gradually 
increase the repetitions until I was between 15-20. Lay off the sprints, and cut the 
distance on the jogging the last week, as you want your body to recuperate before 
you enter the ring. 

Spend about 20 min's a day jumping rope. 

For the first week or so, the workouts should steadily pick up pace. You should 
workout by rounds, and your workouts should be at the minimum of 2 hours. For 
the first two weeks, increase the rounds of shadowboxing, padwork, and heavy bag 
work from your normal workout. 

For example, my class presently works out like this: 
(3 hour allotted time frame) 

10 min's rope 

stretching (takes about 5-10 minutes) 

footwork and medicine ball drills (approx 2-5 rounds, varying) 

pushups 

sit-ups/crunches 

3 rounds shadowboxing 

10+ rounds of partner drills with Thai pads and Heavy bag work 
30 minutes (approx.) of instruction in new techniques 
neck wrestling 



240 



(the last hour of class is reserved for students to work on what they feel they need 
extra practice on, and I "mingle") 

We have one sparring class each week, on Saturdays... 

Depending on the day, many of the drills are shortened, or dropped, based on the 
"group" need. 

If I were to adjust this for fighters, it would be: 

20 min's rope 
stretch 

footwork and medicine ball drills (3-5 rounds varying) 

pushups 

sit-ups/crunches 

5 rounds shadowboxing 

10+ rounds of Thai pad, heavy bag, speed bag, and double-end ball drills 
20 minutes of neck wrestling 

* sparring would take place at least twice a week* 

Important note on sparring. It is of utmost importance that you train to prevent 
injury. Sparring should NOT be done full contact or full competition rules. 
Separate sparring into elements such as boxing, kicking, or clinching. You can mix 
the three in different combinations of sparring as long as you maintain control of 
the fighters, making sure that they are striking lightly. Sparring partners should 
wear full protective gear: Headgear, mouthpiece, 16 oz. gloves, elbow pads (if 
available use lacrosse pads), chest protector, shinpads, and groin protection. 

As training goes on, the first two weeks as mentioned are a build up to what I listed 
above, gradually increasing intensity so that from 3-5 weeks the fighter is training 
as hard as possible. The last week of training should really taper off to a few 
rounds shadowboxing, pad drills, NO SPARRING and light jogging. 

The last 2-3 days of training should consist of really light jogging and a couple of 
rounds of shadowboxing. Nothing else. You must spend the last week letting the 
body recuperate, hence why the big drop off in training. However, you must "keep 
the motor running", which is why you at least do something each day. 

REMEMBER: running, weight training, and such are the fighters responsibility to 
do outside of class time. I do not recommend cross training with another martial art 
while training to fight. I personally cross trained by Mountain Biking when I was 
fighting. 



241 



By contrast, when Thais train to fight, they do all of the above TWICE a day. The 
get up in the AM to run as a group then train. They gather again and do it all over 
again in the evening. 



242 



How not to Flinch, Blink or Turn Away 



You see it in a lot of students who are just beginning to freefight in Muay Thai. 
They are scared and aren't sure what they are doing. When a punch or kick comes 
at them, they react ~ they flinch, cover their head, blink their eyes, and sometimes 
even turn their back. You can almost hear the internal dialogue, "On no. Here it 
comes. I'm going to get hurt." 

Freefighting is at first very uncomfortable. This type of reaction is natural ~ an 
instinctive response in an effort to defend yourself. 

The result, however, is that the student is put at a momentary disadvantage since 
this type of reaction creates an opening an opponent can exploit. In competition the 
student might lose a point, but on the street this type of reaction can put him or her 
in real jeopardy. 

If you blink you lose sight of an opponent momentarily. Vision is also 
disorientated during a flinch as everything becomes a blur of movement. And if 
you turn away, everything is exposed. 

So what can you do? Actually there is a lot you can do, and answers fall into 
several general categories. You can retrain your reflexes, re-orient your attitude 
and learn how boost your visual skills. 

Retraining The Reflexive Body 

First you should gradually learn how to confront and deal with attacks - something 
that will reduce your fear and teach you how to control the natural instincts to run, 
flinch, blink or turn away. 

One way to do this is through various drills. They go a long way 
to allow you to eliminate your fear in a safe environment. 

One of the best drills is to use a pad (often on a handle) to simulate various attacks 
~ straight punches and hooks to the head, body shots and various types of kicks. 
Try to keep a proper fighting position, hands up, and move ~ shift position, duck 
under hooks, and shift your head to the side of a punch (known as slipping a 
punch) while blocking it with your hand or forearm. Gradually you will become 
more comfortable with being attacked and the pace can be increased. The pace of 
the practice attack should always push you a little beyond where you feel 
comfortable. This forces you to improve. 

Later, actual punches and kicks can be introduced ~ at first done slowly and over 
time increased in speed and power. While you may just be defensive at first, after a 
while you will learn to also take the offensive. Be careful to use protective 
equipment unless you are practicing this drill in slow motion. 

243 



On an advanced level a similar activity entails actually allowing soft punches to 
land. If you are more advanced you can allow harder punches. Through this 
method you will learn how to take a punch, how to tighten up or move to eliminate 
its effects and this will reduce the fear factor by reducing perception of possible 
pain. Avoid any actual hits to the head, however. This is dangerous. 

The Mental Switch To Offense 

Most beginners focus on defense and not getting hurt. Mentally they are defensive 
and physically they are hesitant. They are waiting to get hit or hurt, and when 
anything comes near them they jump in anticipation. 

Try to reorientate your thinking to one of offense, not defense. Mental focus will 
change from avoidance of getting hit to a focus on attack. You will begin to look 
for an opening and your dialogue will change too: "Good, here comes an attack I 
can respond to." Fear is reduced because attention has shifted elsewhere. 

Visual Reorientation 

Another method to reduce flinching, blinking and turning away is to be able to re- 
educate how you use and control your eyes. 

To reduce blinking you can control the muscles of the eyelid. 

Many mistakenly try to hold their eyelids open to stop blinking, but this doesn't 
work because blinking is done with the muscles that close the lids, not open them. 




Thus to stop or reduce the tendency to blink, slightly narrow your eyes, thus 
bringing conscious control over the muscles used in blinking. Have a partner punch 
to either side of your head, or jab toward you face but at a distance that contact 
won't be made. Practice controlling your blink reaction. Keep your eyes narrowed, 
observing everything, but not focusing on anything. 

One way to help control flinching is to minimize the surprise of an opponent's 
actions. Visually this can be done in two ways. At the start of freefighting, or when 
action has momentarily ceased, I teach my students to look into their opponents' 
eyes but also perceive their whole body ~ at least at the beginning. 

The eyes will indicate when your opponent is about to attack. So practice picking 
up signals from your opponents' eyes. They provide great forewarning. 



244 



When there is action during freefighting you can also use your vision to reduce the 
potential surprise of an opponent's second or third technique. Do not focus on the 
attack itself, for if you look at it, it will fill your visual field and block your 
perception of what's following. Instead you should look past any attack for what is 
coming next. This gives you more time to react since you will pick up attacks as 
they are launched, not as they are about to land. This give you time to react. 

Blink Reaction Drill 

A drill we use is what we call Uppercut, Uppercut, Hook, Hook. (OK, not a very 
imaginative name . . . ) 

Each fighter wears headgear and gloves. You crowd against one another and 
alternate throwing 4 punches. Fighter N°l throws two uppercuts to the body 
(shovel punches) and then two hooks to the shoulders. Then fighter N°2 
immediately counters with the same. Each fighter defends by crowding the other 
fighter and blocking the hooks with elbows and "fanning" the hooks while rolling 
with the punches. 

Even though these punches aren't aimed at the face, this really helps people get 
used to taking a hit without flinching. 



245 



Beginner Muay Thai Training Schedule 



1 Round is equal to 3 minutes. 



Jogging 
Jump Rope 
Shadowboxing 
Punches 
Elbows 
Knees 
Push Kicks 
Round Kicks 
Combinations 
Focus Mitts 
Punches 
Elbows 

Sparring (Western) 3 days/week 

Thai Pads (combinations) 

Heavy Bag (combinations) 

Tactic Sparring 

Clinching 

Weightlifting 



Morning 
30-45min 



1 round 
1 round 
1 round 
1 round 
1 round 
1 round 

1 round 

2 rounds 

2 rounds 
2-3 rounds 



30min 



Evening 
15min 
1 round 

1 round 
1 round 
1 round 
1 round 
1 round 
1 round 

1 round 

2 rounds 
2-3 rounds 

2 rounds 
2-3 rounds 
2 rounds 
2 rounds 
30min 



246 



Conditioning the Shins 



Most common questions are: How do I condition my shins? It hurts so much when 
I train. How do I make my shins harder? 

First, you must realize that a conditioned shin is one with deadened nerves. The 
shin is already hard and will unlikely get much harder. The key is to deaden the 
nerves so that you wouldn't feel the pain upon impact. However, you must also 
realize that you should not damage the shin bone while trying to deaden the nerves. 
This can be done only by practicing on the Thai pads and bags. The Thai pads and 
bags are softer than your shin bone while hard enough to damage the nerves on the 
skin above your shin bone with repeated impact. This process can take a while 
depending on how hard you train and how frequently you train. You must accept 
that in the beginning, it will be painful. You've just picked one of the most 
demanding sports in the world. There will be pain to go with it. This is only the 
beginning. The first time an opponent lands a hard Thai kick on your legs, you will 
get a wake up call more painful than shin conditioning. Mentally tell yourself that 
this is the initiation process. In time your shins will be properly conditioned. There 
are ointments that may alleviate some of the pain. Use them as needed. But 
understand that no ointment will make the process painless. 

What I don't want to see any of you do is to try and take the shortcut at shin 
conditioning by using hard objects like wood or bottles. I was shocked to hear that 
some people were actually told by their trainers to take this route. If your trainer 
tells you to beat your shins with sticks or roll hard bottles on them, seek another 
Muay Thai gym. This is what will happen if you take these drastic measures. You 
will at first feel that your shins are conditioned fast. Why? Your nerves have been 
deadened fast so that you now feel little pain. But by using an object harder than 
your shin bone you've just damaged the bone too. Guess what will happen later in 
life? That's right, you will have to see a doctor for bone problems. This crazy 
method probably started from the myth that Thai boxers in Thailand kicked trees 
with their shins. The truth is long ago before the availability of pads and bags, Thai 
boxers kicked banana trees. The texture of a banana tree is rubbery and is softer 
than a person's shin. It is not like the wooden oak tree sitting in your backyard. The 
only thing as hard as or harder than your shin bone that you may one day hit are 
the shins, knees, and elbows of your opponents. And if you end up hurting your 
shin bone as a result of kicking into your opponents raised knee, then you may still 
suffer an injury. Just try to minimize injuries in training and save your luck for the 
ring. 



247 



Shin Conditioning Drills 



1. Kick the Heavy Bag and/or Thai pads. You should kick over lOOx's each day. I 
recommend 500x's, or around that figure. 

2. When you start kicking the bag, start kicking lightly at first. Gradually increase 
the power so that you are kicking full power around your 30th kick. 

3. Stop every so often and massage the shins vigorously to get the blood flowing 
back into them. (One of good massage techniques - place your shin between the 
middle knuckles of your second and third fingers, and rub vigorously the length of 
your shin several times) This promotes faster healing of the bruised flesh and any 
damage to the bone. You might also like to invest in Boxing Liniment (basically 
it's Ben Gay). Massage your shins with that before and after you kick, if available. 

4. Do not "tap" or "beat" your shins with sticks, boards, bottles, etc. This causes 
bruises, knots, etc to form on the shin. These painful little areas may stick with you 
for quite some time. 

There has been mention of the popular myth that in old age, Thai boxers shins 
become soft. Believe me, this is NOT TRUE! I have spoken with many older, 
retired Thai boxers, none of them have experienced any detrimental health issues 
concerning the conditioning of their shins and legs. I also spoke with a medical 
professional, and to the best of that person's knowledge, the only likely explanation 
would be if someone had osteoporosis, where the body leaches calcium from the 
bones when there is not enough in the diet. (Thailand is still in many ways a third 
world nation) 

The only problem with the above method is that because we don't start training 
Muay Thai as early in life as the Thai's do, we are playing "catch up". Thai's start 
training usually by the time they are 12 years old. They kick the bag literally 
hundreds of times per day. Hell, they often actually live at their camp, so they have 
the "luxury" to train like that. 

For most of us though, we have jobs, school, families, responsibilities... All kinds 
of distractions that prevent us from training like the Thai's do. That's why some try 
to find easier and cheaper way and use tools such as rolling pins, Coke bottles, 
broomsticks... It's like steroids - one gets faster results but at the cost of one's 
health. It's your health, your life - don't try to cheat on yourself. THE ONLY 
CORRECT WAY OF SHIN CONDITIONING IS TRHOUGH KICKING HEAVY 
BAG AND THAI PADS 

Kicking Trees 

So, one Muay Thai beginner comes up to me and asks, "When will I be ready to 
kick trees?" 



248 



Don't laugh, he was serious. For many of you, this is a silly question, but to others 
this part of Muay Thai mythology is real. 

As is the case with most myths, the belief that Thai Boxers train by kicking trees is 
based on fact. Thai boxers are known for their rigorous physical conditioning, and 
in particular, their extremely hard shins. 

But contrary to what many believe, this is achieved through the use of very modern 
equipment. 

Thai boxers use the finest boxing gear found in the world designed specifically for 
the rigorous use of Muay Thai. As they condition their bodies with pad drills, 
sparring, or exercise, they toughen their shins on the heavy bag. Most Thai boxers 
begin training between the ages of 8 and 12, then being competing professionally 
between the ages of 16 and 22. After 8 years of kicking the heavy bag every day, 
their shins are like iron! However, Thai boxers have not always had access to 
equipment such as heavy bags, hence, the banana tree. 

A banana tree is not hardwood like most trees found in the USA. Banana trees 
have a softer, more plant-like trunk, which will give a little when kicked. 
Additionally, beginning Thai boxers would not start off by kicking a tree with full 
force, rather they would start kicking slowly without much power until the shins 
would eventually toughen to withstand the punishment. Trees are sometimes still 
used today for training. Thai boxers kick them with minimal power in order to 
improve speed and accuracy. 

Though, in all honesty, there are those who are capable of kicking trees without 
any real harm to themselves (I have actually met quite a few of them), this is 
largely an old practice rendered obsolete by the use of modern boxing equipment. 
So in conclusion, please... DON'T TRY THIS AT HOME! 



249 



Common Muay Thai Injuries 



A mild to moderate strain consists of a simple tear of the muscle fibers. Treatment 
consists protecting the muscle and tendon from further injury until healing is 
complete. Immediate treatment should include ice packs to the injured area 
followed by a compressive wrap. Forceful, quick contractions of the injured are 
should be avoided at all costs until pain and swelling subsides. Daily stretching and 
slow contractions of the injured area followed by ice if needed will speed recovery. 

A severe strain consists of a complete tear of the tendon from its boney attachment 
and can be easily identified by a complete loss of function of the muscle-tendon 
group. Treatment is immediate attention by a trained physician. Surgical repair will 
be necessary in most cases. 

A sprain is an injury to the ligament structure and the degree of damage depends 
on the amount of damage to the ligament itself. Ligaments are designed to hold to 
boney areas together at the joint and to prevent excess motion of the join. 

A mild sprain involves only a small portion of the ligament with only minimal 
tearing of the ligament fibres. Treatment involves relieving symptoms only. This is 
best accomplished by applying ice to the injured area followed by a supportive 
elastic wrap. As pain subsides activity can usually be continued without restriction. 

A moderate sprain involves up to half the ligament fibres being torn. Moderate 
sprains are immediately painful and accompanied by swelling and some disability 
in the moving joint. Because the ligament is still at least fifty percent intact there is 
no noticeable instability to the joint. The healing of a moderate sprain is slow and 
requires six to eight weeks for complete recovery (as long as a broken bone!). 
During this time the partially torn ligament must be protected by wrapping or 
strapping. Complete immobilization is usually the best treatment until the healing 
is complete. 

A severe sprain means a complete tear of the ligament and results in the loss of 
stability of the joint. Treatment consists of prompt medical attention and usually 
surgery will be necessary. 

When treating ALL soft-tissue and muscle-to-bone injuries a quick and easy 
method to use is the ICER method. 

• Ice the injured area 

• Compression on the injured area 

• Elevation of the injured area 

• Rest 



250 



Finally, using heat on any muscle, tendon, or ligament injury during the first 72 
hours is a bad mistake. It will increase swelling and make the injury worse. After 
the initial three-day period heat may be used. 



251 



Dealing with Psychological Problem of " Getting Hit" 



There are a lot of beginners who are seemingly leery of "getting hit" - and yet they 
have a desire to take boxing. Some are concerned with getting brain damage; 
others just fear being hit... HARD. I don't think anyone of experience doubts that 
striking skills are important to a fighter: on the street, in tournament - wherever a 
fight takes place - knowing how to hit (and just as important, knowing how to 
avoid, or deal with, GETTING HIT) are invaluable to a fighter. 

We who have Muay Thai experience know that there really isn't that much to 
worry about in learning true striking disciplines - but it is hard to convince the 
uninitiated that trading blows is really no big deal. While I am certainly no threat 
to any boxing title, I have learned the basics, and beyond, in the "sweet science" of 
boxing. I can honestly say it took me about a year to a year-and-a-half to RELAX in 
the ring. To be comfortable in going head-to-head with a professional fighter. To 
stop worrying about GETTING HIT and to start concentrating on HITTING. In my 
gym I saw many people come to take up boxing, but then QUIT after being hit a 
few times. The reasons were always two-fold: 1) their fragile egos couldn't handle 
the idea of losing, and/or 2) they had the mindsets of cowards; they couldn't 
control their FEAR of being hit. Basically, both 1 and 2 involve improper mindsets. 
For the benefit of those forum members who have no striking experience, but want 
to acquire it, and yet allow their FEAR to stop them from trying, I will analyze the 
proper mindset one needs, and address these two negative factors which get in the 
way of a proper mindset. 

1) Not being able to handle losing. If we decide to learn tennis, we realize that we 
will never be able to go on a court and whip a pro. Same thing with weightlifting - 
we realize we can't just walk into a gym and bench press 500 lbs. WE HAVE TO 
WORK AT IT - for years. Muay Thai - same thing. You have to work, for years, to 
get good. Really good. Yet for some reason many of us think we can just walk up 
to a professional boxer and knock him out. We view ourselves, inside, as "the 
ultimate badasses" when it comes to punching power. When we step into the ring 
for the first time and get the snot beaten out of us, we can't handle it. Our egos are 
shattered. How many of us have heard drunk idiots, watching the fights on TV, say 
"Hell, I could kick his ass!" as they watch some fighter get defeated. Those who 
utter such nonsense deserve to be instantly teleported into the pit with the losing 
fighters they're ridiculing to see if they really can "kick his ass." Their bold 
declarations would soon turn into pleas of mercy. 

Face it: when you first go to a Muay Thai boxing gym EXPECT TO BE 
DEFEATED WHEN YOU SPAR, but have this expectation IN A POSITIVE WAY. 
By that I mean LEARN FROM EVERY LOSS. Look at what the other fighter is 
doing to you, study it, and then TRY TO EMULATE WHAT HE f S DOING. This is 



252 



the proper mindset to get better: forget about your ego, you're in there TO LEARN. 
When you lose as a beginner (and even when you're experienced), you turn those 
losses into BENEFITS by realizing that the superior fighter kicking your ass is 
TEACHING YOU SOMETHING. Eventually, if you have the guts to stick with it, it 
will be YOU who is kicking ass. This leads us to the next mindset problem. 

2) A natural tendency towards cowardice. A brave man is one who recognizes a 
danger, he feels the fear, but he CONTROLS THE FEAR and faces the danger 
anyway. A coward also recognizes the danger, he also feels the fear, but it is here 
where he chokes and lets that fear CONTROL HIM and thus AVOIDS the danger. 
MOST OF US FEAR WHAT WE DO NOT KNOW. If we know something, we are 
comfortable with it, so what's there to fear? If we DON'T know something, we're 
wary, concerned, FEARFUL OF WHAT MIGHT HAPPEN. It is bridging the gap 
from NOT knowing how to fist fight, to KNOWING how to, that we need to cross. 
The brave man decides to go learn; the coward never tries. The brave man controls 
his fear and ventures into the unknown (where he will soon KNOW - and thus no 
longer fear) whereas the coward is controlled by his fear, avoids the unknown (and 
thus he will NEVER KNOW - and thus ALWAYS fear). Well so how does the 
natural coward control his fear and become brave? [We've all been here.] 
It is through the internalizing of the basic principles of human effectiveness. My 
Muay Thai trainer always told me "The Lord said it's more blessed to give than to 
receive... and that's especially true in Muay Thai." I used to laugh at this, but the 
older I got, and the more fighting (as well as LIFE experience I gained), the deeper 
I internalized this wisdom. For instance, here comes Christmas In this holiday 
season you will find the one great division of mindsets amongst the populace: 
those who are worried about what they'll GET, and those who are worried about 
what they'll GIVE. Those people who only worry about what they will GET are the 
small of spirit, shriveled and unevolved. Those who worry about GIVING are the 
happy ones, the ones we like, the ones who shine. By the very nature of giving, we 
EXTEND OURSELVES, our limits, and thus we GROW. By the very nature of 
TAKING, we withdraw into ourselves, and thus we SHRIVEL. Those who worry 
about what they're GETTING for Christmas make inferior human beings. Those 
who worry about GIVING at Christmas are superior human beings. THE SAME 
TRUTHS OF MINDSET APPLY IN BOXING (and in anything). If you step into the 
ring worried (or, worse, elect NOT to step into the ring), you will never grow. You 
will curl up in a ball and TAKE punches, because you're mindset is focused on 
what you'll be GETTING instead of what you'll be GIVING. The mindset of a true 
boxer is worried about HITTING, not BEING HIT. He learns the necessary 
defenses only so that he can CONTINUE HITTING. The negative mindset worries 
about being hurt, GETTING HIT, and so will never amount to anything but being a 
whipping boy. 



253 



BOTTOM LINE: 



If you want to evolve and grow as a human being, don't worry about what you'll 
get from others... learn to give, to try, to extend yourself, and to concentrate on 
what YOU'RE DOING to and for others, not on what's being done to or for you. 
If you want to learn how to box, same thing: don't worry about what others will do 
to you, learn to give, to try, to extend yourself with effort, and concentrate on what 
YOU'RE DOING, not on what's being done to you. 

It all has to do with mind control. 



254 



Basic Technique in Meditation Practice 



The primary goal of meditation in Muay Thai is not simply to be able to make a 
meditative effort during formal sittings, but to maintain and generalize conscious 
attention to all aspects of Muay Thai practice and life in general, thereby 
eliminating mental tension. 

Ultimately, the greatest achievement in Muay Thai is the simultaneous refinement 
of mind and body. The special training of consciousness effectively regulates every 
biological system of the body as well as its technical and mechanical facilities. 
Cultivation of the mind leads to cultivation of the body, leading to further 
cultivation of the mind and so on, eventually attaining an exquisite level of 
cooperation and coordination between the two. 

Successful meditation is easy to be achieved, if practiced in the right way. The 
following is step-by-step technique for beginners. 

Preparation 

First, you have to prepare yourself for the session. 

• Remove as much concerns and worries as you can. 

• Make yourself as comfortable as possible for instance wear comfortable 
clothes, choose a secured and peaceful place for your practice, etc. An 
appropriate temperature is also essential. 

• Choose the most relaxed and comfortable as possible sitting position. 

• Draw your attention to building the concentration. Do not let your mind 
wander toward unrelated thinking. 

Practice 

When you are ready, your instructor will help you with each step of practice as 
follows : 



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Step 1. Practice in One Pointed Mindfulness on Breathing: 

a) Take deep breath twice to start concentrate on only your breathing. 

b) Close your eyes and let your breathing go by itself. 

c) Watch closely the "rhythm" and "depth" of your breathing, which 
alternate automatically. 

d) Ignore any thoughts occurred, by trying to watch breathing until it 
draws your complete attention to itself as "one pointed mindfulness" 

Step 2. Practice Contemplation of the body: 

a) While watching your breathing, gradually divide your attention to your 
body. You will find discomfort in several places. 

b) Pay all attention on body adjustment. Gradually shift the position of 
hands, arms, legs and torso; until you are most comfortable. 

c) Turn your attention back to breathing, which becomes deeper and 
makes you feel better than ever. 

Step 3. Practice in Contemplation of the Feelings: 

a) While watching breathing, turn your attention to the feelings at parts of 
the body, beginning with the right palm. You will find that if you 
concentrate one pointed at your hand, the feelings of your hand will 
disappear. Then move your concentration to your right arm, right 
shoulder, left shoulder, left arm and left hand, respectively. 

b) If you can watch your breathing while concentrate on your whole 
body, you will feel as if most of your disappear or weightless and floating 
in space. At time stage, you will be rewarded with feelings of total 
relaxation and peaceful contentment. 

c) Make sure to turn your attention back to breathing to retain your full 
consciousness. Such state of relaxation and contentment can easily makes 
you fall asleep or enter a trance which are not the purpose of this practice. 

Step 4. Practice in contemplation of Mind 

a) While watching your breathing, turn your attention to the darkness 
inside your closed eyes, which looks like dark blank screen of the turned- 
off television set. 

b) While instructor provides selected Buddhist chant, you concentrate on 
breathing and look for picture or color or light in your closed eyes. 

c) If you can see a circle of light in your closed eyes; it is an indication 
that you get " Jhana" or the counterpart sign of your own mind. 

The above four-step practice is part of Lord Buddha's Four Basis of 
Mindfulness, which helps a person of any religion purity his or her own mind so 
that to improve physical can mental health, and to lessen stress from everyday life. 
If practiced regularly, meditation practitioner will develop better understanding of 
life and ability to reduce ill emotions such as depression, doubt, confusion and etc. 



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Hand Wrapping 



Hand Wrapping 

Hand wrapping for Muay Thai serves multiple functions. 

JVsl- lends support to your wrist and hand bones (metatarsals) to prevent injury 

JVs2- absorbs your sweat so that your equipment will last longer and not smell like old sweat 
socks 

By wrapping your hands, you are trying to give support to your wrist and the back of your hand, 
especially by your ring and pinky fingers. 

Most handwraps have a loop, and are labeled with a sign "This side down", and a velcro fastener 
on the other end. 

Hook the loop over your thumb, and begin by wrapping around your wrist by going across the 
back of your hand. 

Make sure the side of the wraps that say "this side down" is the side against your wrist. Try not 
to "twist the wraps". 

As you begin to wrap, do not pull them too tight. They should be snug, but not tight. You want to 
make sure that your wrist, hand, and fingers get proper blood circulation. 

After wrapping around your wrist a couple of times, bring the wrap up across the back of your 
hand. Make sure to cover the knuckles. Allow the wraps to extend about an inch down onto your 
fingers. 

As you begin to wrap across the back of your hand, spread your fingers wide as though you are 
about to palm a basketball. This will make sure that you do not wrap too tightly and cut off your 
circulation. 

Keep alternating between wrapping the back of your hand and your wrist. When you approach 
the end of your wrap, finish wrapping the excess around your wrist and fasten them there. 

Many people will also include wrapping around the thumb knuckle when they handwrap, to 
support the thumb against potential breaks. This is a personal choice. I prefer not to wrap the 
thumb because it tends to make my thumb stick out more and is harder to tuck into my fist. I then 
end up catching my thumb on something while boxing and injuring it. You may choose to wrap 
it if it works ok for you. 

Also, if you have the extra long wraps, such as the Mexican handwraps from Ringside, you may 
wrap the additional material by going in-between your fingers. 



257 



Muay Thai Hand Wrapping 



^ Ik 

^^^^ ^3 

^^^^ ' M 


1. Place the end loop around the thumb with the 
wrap going across the wrist. 




2 St?irHncF ^ inphp<s hphinH thp hand wran ^ 

£m . kJ LCU. Llllci w/ lllv/llv^kZ? L/V11111VJ- LI 1 w 1 1 CI 1 1 vl ^ VV 1 City 

times around the wrist making smooth tapers 
towards the hand. 




3. Now wrap 5 to 6 times around the knuckles 
with the finders ^Tvrefld wide F)otVt wran too 

VV 1111 HAW lllltvl k3 kjLyl V/ClvL VV IVlVa ly vll \> VV A tlLy V\J \J 

tight and making sure not to see the finger 
webbing when finished. The knuckles should 
be in the center of the wrap. 




4 


4. jnow taKe tne wrap Denina tne tnumo ana 
high on the wrist and bring up between the 
pinky and ring finger. 



258 



5. Bring wrap behind the thumb and across the 
top of the wrist and go underneath the hand. 




6. Bring wrap from underneath hand and 
between the index and middle finger. 




7. Again bring the wrap behind the thum and 
across the top of the hand (staying high on the 
wrist) and underneath and back up between the 
middle and ring finger. 




8. Coming again behind the thumb and high on 
the wrist... use the remaining wrap to cover over 
tightly the knuckle, wrist and thumb joint. 




9. Finish around the wrist and secure tightly. 
It's just that easy. 



259 



After wrapping your hands, I personally like to use a little athletic tape across the back of the 
hand and around the wrist to keep the wraps secure. You will find that no matter how well you 
wrap them, they will begin to unravel during your workout, and a little athletic tape is a great 
way to prevent you from having to stall in practice to adjust your wraps. 

If you prefer to include wrapping around the thumb knuckle, then use one of following methods. 
One of them is for fighting and other for heavy bag training but in general both are suitable for 
all purposes either training or fighting. Try them all and chose what suits you more. 

Pro-Boxing Hand Wrapping 




Spread your fingers with 
palm facing down. Place 
thumb through the loop... 



Wrap around your wrist 2 or 
3 times, depending on the 
size of your hand. 



260 




261 




Bring the wrap over the top 
of the thumb. 



262 




Wrap back around the wrist. 



Wrap around the thumb 
again. It is good to wrap the 
thumb 3 times. 



263 




Now you will wrap the 
knuckles. 



264 




Bring the wrap across the 
palm. 



Wrap around the knuckles. 



Wrap around the knuckles 2 
or 3 times 



265 




Bring the wraps back 
around the wrist. 



After coming around the 
wrist, bring over the top of 
the thumb. 

This will form a FIGURE 8 

pattern. 

See it? 



Wrap between the index and 
middle fingers. 



266 




Back around the top of the 
thumb. 



Between the mid. and ring 
fingers. Bring the wrap back 
over the top of the thumb 



267 




268 




Wrap the knuckles twice. 



269 




Your almost finished, so if 
you have extra material left, 
wrap the knuckles a third 
time. 



Bringing the wraps up and 
around the wrist. 



270 




Bringing around the wrist. 



Now secure the Velcro and 
you are ready. 



271 



Hand Wrapping for Heavy Bag Training 




Spread your fingers with palm facing 
down. Place thumb through the loop... 



Wrap around wrist 3 times. 

Proper tightness is important. Wraps 
should be tight enough to stay firmly in 
place, but if too tight, will cut off your 
circulation. 



Wrap the thumb. 



272 




Wrap the thumb again and back around 
the wrist. Repeat for a total of 3 times 
around the thumb. 



Each time around the thumb, then 
around the wrist. 



After the thumb is secure, you need to 
wrap the knuckles... 



Wrap the knuckles... 



274 




Keep your fingers spread apart. 



Wrap around the knuckles 3 times. 



Bring back around the wrist 



275 



After looping around your wrist, you are 
now going to thread it between your 
fingers. 



Loop the wrap between the middle and 
ring finger 



Bring wrap back over the top 



Now wrap the knuckles again 




277